Properties, Formulation, Transfer & Storage of Petroleum Products


Who should attend?

  • From the properties of the finished products, this training provides a deeper knowledge on the operations of formulation of the petroleum products of their storage and their transfer between different sites.
Audience :
  • Operation staff (field operators, panel operators, supervisors…) in reception, blending of crude or petroleum products, storage or shipping facilities.
  • Anyone involved in petroleum products transfer and storage management.

Level : Proficiency

Course Content


      • Crude oils: main constituents, properties, initial fractionation in petroleum cuts.
      • Petroleum products:
      • LPG, gasoline, jet fuel, Automotive Diesel Oil, heating oil, heavy fuel oils, bitumen.
      • Main specifications manufacturing constraints, storage and safety specificities.
      • Evolution of product specifications.
      • Bases and alternative fuels: ethanol, ETBE and FAME.

      • Bases manufacturing from petroleum cuts: petroleum products manufacturing scheme, simplified process diagrams of refineries and petrochemical units.
      • Finished products manufacturing:
      • Principle of the blenders: on-line optimization manufacturing, additisation.
      • Economic aspects (give-away, added profit).

      • Transfer by gravity: characteristics of gravity flow.
      • Transfer by pumping:
      • Performance of centrifugal pumps, simplified technology and adaptation to pumping circuits.
      • Operation of centrifugal pumps, start-up, shutdown, installation in series and parallel implementation.
      • Operation and simplified technology of volumetric pumps.
      • Operation of a transfer installation: practical and economic aspects, risks of vaporization, pressure surges, etc.
      • Transfer of crude oil and petroleum products by ship.
      • Application: study of transfer from one tank to another.

      • Storage equipment:
      • Pressurized and refrigerated tanks, spheres, cylindrical tanks, cryogenic tanks, cavities, ancillary equipment: safety valves, hydraulic safety valves.
      • Fixed roof tanks: different types, vents, justification and limits of vent valves.
      • Floating screen tanks: special features, justification.
      • Floating roof tanks: different types of roof and seals, supporting legs, rainwater drainage.
      • Protection against fire risks.
      • Tank operation:
      • Operational safety: risks of inflammation, static electricity, pyrophoric substances, emulsions, overflowing, toxic products.
      • Heating. Mixing.
      • Measuring the quantities delivered, stored and shipped: manual and remote gauging, measuring the temperature locally and remotely, volumetric and dynamic meters, manual and automatic sampling.
      • Usual operation of storage tanks including emptying, degassing and making ready for use.

Learning Objectives

  • Upon completion of the course participants will be able to:
  • list the main characteristics of crude oil, petroleum fractions, blending stocks and finished products,
  • apply the blending and manufacturing rules of finished products,
  • calculate the functioning parameters of transfer by gravity or by pump,
  • recognize the elements of atmospheric storage tanks,
  • identify risks for safety, equipment and accounting in storage operations and develop measures appropriate to control such risks.

Ways & Means

  • Case studies based on industrial situations: products transfers, products formulations.