Vehicle EmissionsMOT/PRESTAE-E

Who should attend?

  • This course provides a deeper knowledge and competencies on emissions and after-treatment systems.
Audience :
  • Engineers and technical staff involved in the design, development, calibration and testing of engines, who need to know the mechanisms of pollutants formation and current and future exhaust gases after-treatment systems.

Level : Advanced

Course Content

  • Air pollution, roots & consequences, regulations

      • Fundamentals of combustion.
      • Mechanisms of pollutants formation.
      • Primary and secondary pollutants.
      • Regulated and non-regulated pollutants (NRP).
      • Regulations: CO2, emissions, WLTP.
      • Influence of vehicle characteristics and powertrain adaptation on emissions (cost down, inertia class, gear ratios, …).
      • Homologation.
      • Production conformity.
  • Atmospheric phenomena

      • Air quality: space (local or global) and time scales. Consequences and impacts.
      • Phenomena: ozone layer, greenhouse effect, acid rains, photochemical smog, …
      • Air quality standards, regulations applied to the car emissions and approval cycles.
  • Testing methodology - Measurements on engines & exhaust gas analysis

      • Measurements of pollutants on engine test bench.
      • Measurements of exhaust emissions and evaporation losses on chassis dynamometer: operation of a chassis dynamometer, key features to monitor, calibration of analyzers, control of the stability of analyzers/control of leaks, conditioning of the vehicle.
      • Evolution of analysis materials: trends and developments.
  • Emissions reduction levers at source

      • Diesel: combustion, mechanisms of formation of pollutants, influence of engine parameters, operating limits, injection equipment, air loop engine management, fuel impact, calibration.
      • Gasoline: combustion, mechanisms of formation of pollutants, influence of engine parameters, operating limits, injection equipment, air loop engine management, fuel impact, calibration.
  • Exhaust gas after treatment oxidation & tri-functional catalysis

      • Oxidation and tri-functional catalysis:
      • Automotive exhaust catalysis: catalytic reactions, mechanisms, catalysts, precious metals, performance criteria, functional definitions (conversion rate, after-treatment related constraints, gasoline and Diesel).
      • Oxidation catalysis: efficiency, field, initiation, conversion rate, case of methane, sulfur and particles oxidation.
      • Tri-functional catalysis: stoichiometric conditions, air/fuel ratio control, cold conditions (HC, exhaust thermal management), high power loop opening.
      • Catalysts ageing: ageing nature, thermal (temperature and sintering), chemical (poisoning), by the accumulation of deposits coming from the lubricants, the fuels or the additives. Functional limit of catalysts ageing.
      • Nitrogen Oxides Treatment:
      • NOx traps: operating principle (storage mechanisms, range of temperatures to use, rich mixture reduction phase), trap desulfurization.
      • Selective reduction catalytic (SCR): by ammonia, urea injection strategy, use restrictions. “Clean-up” catalysts.
      • Particulate filter: filtration element structure and composition regeneration strategy either by fuel additive, fuel born catalyst or by Catalytic diesel Particulates Filter (CdPF). Use of the 5th or the 7th injector.
      • Installation on the vehicle: evolution towards the 4-way catalysis: in the same converter, combining the particulate filter of a nitrogen oxides treatment system (SCR or non-trap) with an oxidation catalyst.
  • Diagnosis & OBD regulations

      • Introduction to the OBD in France and in the world.
      • Evolutions.
      • OBD homologation.
      • OBD validations.

Learning Objectives

  • Upon completion of the course, participants will be able to:
  • know the fundamentals on the physics of the combustion and the mechanisms of pollutants formation,
  • master the contribution of alternative engines to atmospheric pollution phenomena,
  • know the regulations restrictions,
  • know the nature of the emitted pollutants,
  • use emission reduction levers at source,
  • know testing methodologies, the standard tools used to measure pollutants (gas analyzers, opacity meters), the kind of measurements and analyses done on exhaust gases,
  • understand on board diagnostics (OBD) requirements,
  • know how the gasoline and diesel fuel characteristics affect the engine behavior,
  • understand the structure of engine management system and its impact on emissions.