# Pipeline Hydraulics & Multiphase Flow

SPRO/HYDRGB

## Who should attend?

• This course provides a practical understanding of pipeline hydraulics, flow simulation and pipe friction loss calculations.
Audience :
• Engineers involved in designing, constructing or operating Oil & Gas production facilities.

Level : Proficiency

## Course Content

• ### FUNDAMENTALS OF FLUID MECHANICS FRICTION LOSSES IN SINGLE-PHASE FLOW

• Total energy of a fluid. Bernoulli law.
• Real fluid flow: viscosity, friction coefficient.
• Flow regimes: laminar and turbulent (eddy) flows. Reynolds number.
• Calculation of friction loss through pipes: Moody chart, AFTP charts (Lefevre).
• Calculation of friction loss through fittings:
• Method 1: resistance coefficient.
• Method 2: equivalent straight pipe length.
• Case of compressible fluids (gas) - Main empirical equations.
• Several exercises.
• ### MULTIPHASE FLOW IN OIL & GAS PRODUCTION

• Incentives and stakes.
• Definition of multiphase flow.
• Main terminology.
• Basic understanding of different modeling approaches.
• Historical methods to study steady-state two-phase flow.
• Example of multiphase dynamic flow simulator OLGA™.
• Future with multiphase flow modeling.
• ### FLOW ASSURANCE

• Main flow assurance issues.
• Flow stability: flow pattern (horizontal and vertical); slugging.
• Erosion constraints, wax, hydrates.
• Heat transfer: main heat transfer phenomenon, OHTC, cold spot issue.
• Fluid modeling (example with Multiflash™).
• Phase envelope, hydrate dissociation curve, emulsion, viscosity.
• ### WELL GAS STREAMS

• Natural gas field development:
• “Dry” scheme versus “Wet” scheme.
• Main flow assurance issues (hydrates, TLC, surge liquid volume handling).
• “Wet” scheme simulations.
• Operating envelope.
• Geometry impacts.
• Example of slug-catcher design.
• ### CRUDE OIL STREAMS

• Crude oil field development:
• Deep water constraints.
• Typical field preservation.
• Classical loops versus alternative development architectures.
• Subsea processing.
• Crude oil stream:
• Severe slugging.
• Hydrodynamic slug flow. Slug-catcher design.
• Thermal constraints during production/transient (cool down).

## Learning Objectives

• Upon completion of the course, participants will be able to:
• assess friction losses in a pipeline and fittings for a single-phase flow,
• understand multiphase flow patterns and main perturbing factors,
• grasp multiphase flow hydrodynamics for wet gas streams and crude oil streams,
• understand operational constraints of single and multiphase flow lines,
• deal with pipeline flow assurance issues, simulate a pipeline using the software program OLGA™.

## Ways & Means

• Highly interactive training by industry-specialist lecturers.
• Several applications and illustrations.
• Use of simulation software programs OLGA™ and Multiflash™.