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# E-509 - Pipeline Hydraulics & Multiphase Flow

5 days
PROD/HYDRGB
Sessions
This course is not scheduled.
Who should attend?

Audience

• Engineers involved in designing, constructing or operating Oil & Gas production facilities.

Level

• Proficiency
• This course provides a practical understanding of pipeline hydraulics, flow simulation and pipe friction loss calculations.
Learning Objectives
• Upon completion of the course, participants will be able to:
• assess friction losses in a pipeline and fittings for a single-phase flow,
• understand multiphase flow patterns and main perturbing factors,
• grasp multiphase flow hydrodynamics for wet gas streams and crude oil streams,
• understand operational constraints of single and multi-phase flow lines,
• deal with pipeline flow assurance issues,
• simulate a pipeline using the software program OLGA™.
Course Content

## FUNDAMENTALS OF FLUID MECHANICS FRICTION LOSSES IN SINGLE-PHASE FLOW

1.5 days

• Total energy of a fluid. Bernoulli law.
• Real fluid flow: viscosity, friction coefficient.
• Flow regimes: laminar and turbulent (eddy) flows. Reynolds number.
• Calculation of friction loss through pipes: Moody chart, AFTP charts (Lefevre).
• Calculation of friction loss through fittings:
• Method 1: resistance coefficient.
• Method 2: equivalent straight pipe length.
• Case of compressible fluids (gas) - Main empirical equations.
• Several exercises.

## MULTI-PHASE FLOW IN OIL & GAS PRODUCTION

0.5 day

• Incentives and stakes.
• Definition of multi-phase flow.
• Main terminology.
• Basic understanding of different modeling approaches.
• Historical methods to study steady-state two-phase flow.
• Example of multi-phase dynamic flow simulator OLGA™.
• Future with multi-phase flow modeling.

## FLOW ASSURANCE

1 day

• Main flow assurance issues.
• Flow stability: Flow pattern (horizontal and vertical) - Slugging.
• Erosion constraints, Wax, Hydrates.
• Heat transfer: main heat transfer phenomenon, OHTC, cold spot issue.
• Fluid modeling (example with Multiflash™).
• Phase envelope, hydrate dissociation curve, emulsion, viscosity.

## WELL GAS STREAMS

1 day

• Natural gas field development:
• “Dry” scheme versus “Wet” scheme.
• Main flow assurance issues (hydrates, TLC, surge liquid volume handling).
• “Wet” scheme simulations.
• Operating envelope.
• Geometry impacts.
• Example of slugcatcher design.

## CRUDE OIL STREAMS

1 day

• Crude oil field development:
• Deep water constraints.
• Typical field preservation.
• Classical loops versus alternative development architectures.
• Subsea processing.
• Crude oil stream:
• Severe slugging.
• Hydrodynamic slug flow. Slug-catcher design.
• Thermal constraints during production/transient (cool down).
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Ways & Means
• Highly interactive training by industry-specialist lecturers.
• Several applications and illustrations.
• Use of simulation software programs OLGA™ and Multiflash™.