Petroleum Products - Properties & Manufacturing Schemes

E-learning This course can be adapted to virtual classroom mode

Who should attend?

  • This course provides a deeper knowledge of petroleum products' properties and specifications. For each product, the manufacturing scheme is explained in details.
Public :
  • Technicians, engineers, managers and commercial or technical staff whose activities are related to the production, storage, purchasing, marketing or use of petroleum products.
  • Also suitable for technicians, engineers and managers in the refining industry interested in improving their knowledge of petroleum products.

Level : Proficiency

Course Content


      • Composition and main characteristics of crude oils.
      • Principle of oil refining processes: Fractionation of crude oils in cuts, modification of the chemical composition of the cuts to produce the bases suitable for the fuel manufacturing. In-line blending to produce the commercial products.
      • Specifications based on normalized tests, tests significance, accuracy of the methods (repeatability and reproductibility).

      • For each major product (LPG, automotive gasoline, jet fuel, automotive diesel oil, heating oil and heavy fuel oils), the following aspects are developed:
      • Market trends - Volatility characteristics - Combustion properties - Air pollution: engine emission specifications - Storage stability - Manufacturing schemes - Main additives incorporated in the refinery.
      • Manufacturing: in line blending, on line analyzers. Tank Quality Integration (TQI). Analyzer certification advantages.
      • In addition, in view of current trends, emphasis is placed on the following issues:
      • Automotive gasoline: aromatic content limitation, addition of biofuels (ethanol and ethers) and specific case of BOB (Blendstock for Oxygenate Blending): impact on the refining scheme. Impact of the formulation on the engine emissions. Performance additives added at the terminal.
      • Jet A1: market trend, agro-fuels incorporation.
      • Automotive Diesel oil: problems raised by the high A.D.O demand in Europe; consequences of the more stringent limitation of the engine emissions for the car makers (new post-treatment systems); potential quality problems related to the presence of agro-fuels (FAME – Fatty Acid Methyl Ester, HVO - Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil); performance additives added at the terminal.
      • Heating oil: problems related to the high cracked stocks content; differences of composition between ADO and HO.
      • Heavy fuel oils: stability of visbroken fuels. Modifications of the refining scheme related to the coming marine fuels standard (in 2020).

      • Bitumen:
      • The different types of bitumen: pure, polymer-modified, emulsions.
      • The major standard tests: penetration, softening point, ageing. Introduction to rheological measurements used by the road builders.
      • Lube base oils:
      • Base oils manufacturing from vacuum distillates. Composition/properties relationships for base oils. Conventional and non-conventional lube chains.
      • Properties and characteristics of base oils: viscosity index, cold properties, oxidation stability…
      • Base oils groups.

      • Oil price variation, refining margin, product prices.
      • Trading, pricing mechanism, marketing strategies.

Learning Objectives

  • Upon completion of the course, the participants will be able to:
  • list the components of each petroleum product,
  • grasp the main characteristics of petroleum products and their relevance for end-users,
  • identify recent changes and future trends for the petroleum products’ specifications,
  • describe and explain the manufacturing scheme for each product.

Ways & Means

  • Use of interactive educational games to facilitate the understanding of the manufacturing schemes.