Module 3: Diesel Engines

MOT/MOT3-E

Who should attend?

  • This course provides technical knowledge on Diesel engines for cars and industrial vehicles.
Audience :
  • Engineers and technical staff of engine design, development or tuning departments, Diesel engines. For improved comprehension, applicants are advised to initially follow the Module 1.

Level : Foundation

Course Content

  • Combustion system optimization

      • Pollutants formation mechanisms
      • Formation conditions of particles, nitrogen oxides, unburnt hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide. Representation in a temperature-air/fuel ratio diagram. Influence of injection pressure, swirl, injection advance parameters.
      • Fuel jet gas and liquid parts behaviors.
      • Combustion system optimization
      • Streamline inlet: swirl roles and measurement; trade-off with cylinder head tightness.
      • Drawing of the cavity (bowl) machined in the piston head.
      • Injection system required qualities.
      • Combustion noise. Advantage of multiple injections.
      • Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR)
      • How it reduces nitrogen oxide rate. Interest of EGR cooling.
      • High and low pressure EGR.
      • Start and cold start
      • Combustion deterioration factors causing fumes and noise.
      • Structure and control strategy of glow plugs used on car engines.
  • Supercharging

      • Turbocharger operating and technology.
      • Turbocharger adaptation process on an engine: determining the flow and the density in the intake manifold, choosing the supercharger, calculating the flow and the turbine expansion ratio, choosing the turbine.
      • Fixed or variable geometry turbocharger (FGT or VGT), supercharging by two sequential turbochargers.
  • Compression ignition engine fuel characteristics

      • Diesel fuel main characteristics and specifications (density, cetane rating, viscosity, lubricating capacity, volatility, sulfur, …) and impact on the engine behavior, additive properties.
      • Impact of the fuel composition on the regulated and non regulated pollutant emissions.
      • Biofuels: vegetable oil esters.
  • Injection system technology & monitoring

      • Common-rail injection system: system description; systems evolution.
      • High pressure pump; high and low rail pressure control.
      • Fuel injector operating; flow in the injector nozzle, hydraulic flow.
      • Rail technology; flow balance.
  • Exhaust gas after-treatment

      • Regulations evolution, depollution strategies.
      • Oxidation catalysis: efficiency, initiation temperature, sulfur effect, positioning in the exhaust line.
      • Nitrogen oxides after-treatment: NOx traps, selective reduction catalyst (SCR).
      • Diesel particles after-treatment: Diesel particle filter (DPF); DPF regeneration with additives in the fuel or by filter catalytic coating; associated engine monitoring strategy.

Learning Objectives

  • Upon completion of the course, participants will be able to:
  • know how direct injection Diesel engines work: ignition physics, design and adjustment parameters optimization,
  • know high pressure injection systems operation and evolution,
  • understand how Diesel fuel characteristics affect the engine behavior,
  • select a depollution strategy and an after-treatment system,
  • match a turbocharger with an engine.

Ways & Means

  • Lecturers are industry experts, delivering real life examples.