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Module 3: Diesel Engines

Module 3: Diesel Engines

3 days
MOT/MOT3-E
Sessions
This course is not scheduled.
Who should attend?

Audience

    • Engineers and technical staff of engine design, development or tuning departments, Diesel engines. For improved comprehension, applicants are advised to initially follow the Module 1.

Level

  • Foundation
  • This course provides technical knowledge on Diesel engines for cars and industrial vehicles.
Learning Objectives
  • Upon completion of the course, participants will be able to:
  • know how direct injection Diesel engines work: ignition physics, design and adjustment parameters optimization,
  • know high pressure injection systems operation and evolution,
  • understand how Diesel fuel characteristics affect the engine behavior,
  • select a depollution strategy and an after-treatment system,
  • match a turbocharger with an engine.
Course Content

Combustion system optimization

1 day

  • Pollutants formation mechanisms
  • Formation conditions of particles, nitrogen oxides, unburnt hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide. Representation in a temperature-air/fuel ratio diagram. Influence of injection pressure, swirl, injection advance parameters.
  • Fuel jet gas and liquid parts behaviors.
  • Combustion system optimization
  • Streamline inlet: swirl roles and measurement; trade-off with cylinder head tightness.
  • Drawing of the cavity (bowl) machined in the piston head.
  • Injection system required qualities.
  • Combustion noise. Advantage of multiple injections.
  • Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR)
  • How it reduces nitrogen oxide rate. Interest of EGR cooling.
  • High and low pressure EGR.
  • Start and cold start
  • Combustion deterioration factors causing fumes and noise.
  • Structure and control strategy of glow plugs used on car engines.

Supercharging

0.5 day

  • Turbocharger operating and technology.
  • Turbocharger adaptation process on an engine: determining the flow and the density in the intake manifold, choosing the supercharger, calculating the flow and the turbine expansion ratio, choosing the turbine.
  • Fixed or variable geometry turbocharger (FGT or VGT), supercharging by two sequential turbochargers.

Compression ignition engine fuel characteristics

0.5 day

  • Diesel fuel main characteristics and specifications (density, cetane rating, viscosity, lubricating capacity, volatility, sulfur, …) and impact on the engine behavior, additive properties.
  • Impact of the fuel composition on the regulated and non regulated pollutant emissions.
  • Biofuels: vegetable oil esters.

Injection system technology & monitoring

0.5 day

  • Common-rail injection system: system description; systems evolution.
  • High pressure pump; high and low rail pressure control.
  • Fuel injector operating; flow in the injector nozzle, hydraulic flow.
  • Rail technology; flow balance.

Exhaust gas after-treatment

0.5 day

  • Regulations evolution, depollution strategies.
  • Oxidation catalysis: efficiency, initiation temperature, sulfur effect, positioning in the exhaust line.
  • Nitrogen oxides after-treatment: NOx traps, selective reduction catalyst (SCR).
  • Diesel particles after-treatment: Diesel particle filter (DPF); DPF regeneration with additives in the fuel or by filter catalytic coating; associated engine monitoring strategy.
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