Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)LNG/LNG

Who should attend?

  • This course provides a comprehensive technical and economic review of the Liquefied Natural Gas industry.
Audience :
  • Professionals involved or interested in the LNG industry: technical and managerial staff in the LNG industry, equipment providers, personnel from engineering companies, etc.

Level : Foundation

Course Content

  • THE LNG WORLD

      • The LNG chain. Order of magnitude and trends. Location of main plants worldwide.
      • Base load LNG plants. Peak shaving LNG plants. Small LNG plants for LNG fueled vehicles.
      • Receiving terminals. Regasification techniques. Satellite regasification techniques.
  • LNG SPECIFIC PROPERTIES & ASSOCIATED HAZARDS

      • Physical properties: liquid-vapor equilibrium, density, ratio of vapor methane/LNG, heat of vaporization, heat of combustion…
      • Safety aspects: flash point, fire point, auto-ignition point, minimum spark energy, flammability limits, deflagration.
      • LNG vaporization, Rapid Phase Transition (RPT), radiation levels, stratification/roll-over, sloshing, LNG clouds ignition.
      • Asphyxiation risks, cryogenic liquids jets, piping behavior.
  • LNG HAZARD PREVENTION & MITIGATION MEASURES

      • LNG spillage control at design stage and in operation.
      • LNG clouds control in operation.
      • LNG fires control at design stage and in operation.
  • LIQUEFACTION & REGASIFICATION PROCESSES

      • Feed pretreatment: sweetening, dehydration, NGL extraction, Hg and aromatics removal.
      • Different liquefaction processes: pure component refrigerants, pure component(s) and mixed refrigerant(s), mixed refrigerants.
      • Peak shaving simplified scheme.
      • Regasification process.
  • LNG STORAGE, LOADING/OFFLOADING & TRANSPORT

      • LNG tanks: single or double or full containment (self-standing, membrane). Hazards.
      • Jetty head, jetty trestle, harbor.
      • LNG carriers: common features, technology, cargo operations, safety systems.
  • TECHNOLOGY OF LNG SPECIFIC EQUIPMENT

      • LNG cryogenic heat exchangers: spiral wound heat exchangers, aluminum brazed heat exchangers.
      • Technology of the cryogenic compressors and their drivers (gas turbines).
      • LNG Vaporizers: Open Rack Vaporizers (ORV), Submerged Combustion Vaporizers (SCV), etc.
      • Safety and environmental aspects.
      • Submerged LNG pumps: in-tank retractable pumps, cargo pumps, HP canned send out pumps, etc.
      • Liquid cryogenic turbo-expanders, cryogenic valves.
      • Cryogenic personnel protection items.
  • LNG PLANT OPERATION

      • Day to day activities in an LNG plant. Experience of some plants.
  • LNG TRENDS - RESEARCH & NEW DEVELOPMENTS

      • Latest LNG trends. Equipment and concept development. Future developments.
  • LNG ECONOMIC ASPECTS

      • Gas markets: natural gas reserves and production, worldwide gas demands distribution, international natural gas trade.
      • LNG contracts: specificities of LNG contracts, pricing, shipping contracts.
      • LNG markets trends.

Learning Objectives

  • Upon completion of the course, participants will be able to:
  • review the structure of an LNG chain and the world map of LNG plants,
  • understand main LNG physical properties and specificities,
  • assess LNG facilities’ hazards and HSE issues, along with risk mitigation and prevention techniques,
  • grasp main liquefaction processes’ operating principles, conditions and constraints,
  • gain an overview of the technology of equipment used in the LNG industry, grasp the essence of LNG markets and contracts.

Ways & Means

  • Highly interactive training by industry-specialist lecturers.
  • Numerous applications, illustrations and videos.