Light Cuts Processing

RAF/REF1

Who should attend?

  • This course provides a thorough knowledge of operation and refining processes involved in gasoline and diesel production.
Audience :
  • Engineers and supervisors involved in light and middle distillates processing units.

Level : Foundation

Course Content

  • PETROLEUM PRODUCTS

      • Origin and characteristics of naphtha cuts.
      • Octane properties and hydrocarbon (HC) families. Quality requirements.
      • Gasoil and Diesel oil: cetane, cold flow and other properties.
  • CATALYTIC REFORMING

      • Refinery octane pool: processes for octane improvement-gasoline sources.
      • Process basics: thermodynamics and kinetics of chemical reactions. Hydrogen production.
      • Role and types of catalysts - Activation, ageing, poisoning.
      • Industrial units: process flow scheme of SR and CCR, operating conditions, performances.
      • Operating variables (WABT, WHSV, H2/HC ratio, recycle gas composition, pressure).
      • Management of hydrogen production, impact of feed properties and operating conditions.
      • Shutdown, regeneration and startup.
      • Catalyst regeneration steps and control.
  • ISOMERIZATION OF LIGHT GASOLINES

      • Integration in the gasoline production scheme. Isomerization reaction characteristics.
      • Different types of catalysts: properties, activation, poisons, operating conditions.
      • Industrial process: principle and specific constraints.
      • Downstream separation main types and impact of recycling.
  • HYDROREFINING PROCESSES

      • Removal of impurities, hydrogenation of unsaturated compounds: chemical reactions characteristics.
      • Role and types of catalysts in relation with feeds, hydrogen consumption and required results.
      • Operating conditions and main variables (temperature, WHSV, H2/HC ratio, PPH2, etc.).
      • Catalyst loading map; cycle length optimization.
      • Main refining applications and specific operating features, example of gasolines and middle distillates desulfurization.
  • SWEETENING OF LIGHT CUTS

      • Role of sweetening process, basic chemical reactions, nature and efficiency of the catalyst.
      • Main applications for LPG’s, naphtha’s and kerosene cuts.
      • Operating conditions: temperature, caustic concentration, mixing efficiency, air injection, etc.
  • SULFUR RECOVERY

      • Refinery sulfur balance. Importance of sulfur recovery chain processes.
      • Amine scrubbing chemical reactions and operating parameters.
      • Industrial process and operating parameters as air/H2S ratio, steam production.
      • Claus chemical reactions.
      • Process control and impact on environment: causes for sulfur emission increase.
      • Tail gas treatments: process principles, operating conditions.

Learning Objectives

  • Upon completion of the course, the participants will be able to:
  • link processing units operation to various constraints set by product specifications,
  • analyze operating parameters and their impacts,
  • acquire the basics for operating processing units,
  • know about the latest developments in these processes.

Ways & Means

  • Numerous exercises and case studies based on real industrial situations.