Hydrotreatment ProcessesRAF/HDT-E

Who should attend?

  • This course provides a deeper understanding for operating, monitoring and optimizing hydrotreatment units.
Audience :
  • Engineers, senior operation personnel or technical supervisory staff interested or involved in the operation of hydrotreatment units.
  • Engineers from research centers and engineering companies involved in the different aspects of the operation and process control of these units.

Level : Proficiency

Course Content


      • Impurities in petroleum cuts and products; their impact on health, environment and on other refining processes. Highly refractory compounds.
      • Recent regulations and future trends: quality specifications of petroleum products and fuels in relationship with concerns mentioned above.
      • Aim of the various treatments with hydrogen and integration in the refining scheme: hydropurifications of straight run cuts, stabilization or saturation of cracked cuts.

      • Characteristics of the chemical reactions involved: thermodynamic and kinetic aspects, consequences on the operation of units, side reactions and optimum operating conditions to deplete their evolution, specific features of reversion reactions.
      • Characteristics of the catalysts for hydropurification and for hydrogenation: effect of molybdenum, cobalt and nickel, importance of the substrate, selection criteria for a hydrotreatment specific issue. Top gradings.
      • Catalyst dense loading. Reactor internals.
      • Presulfiding procedures: role, steps and details for the different methods.

      • Operating conditions and compositions of the main streams; mass balance and yields, sulfur balance, hydrogen balance and consumption.
      • Significance of the operating variables and their influence on the process: mean temperatures and profile, pressures, PPH2, recycle rate, quench ratio, feed flow rate and space velocity.
      • Advanced process control and optimization of the process.
      • Management of the hydrogen network in the refinery. Effect of feed composition and origin.
      • Catalyst follow up and cycle length optimization, ageing and deactivation.
      • Regeneration steps and monitoring.
      • Maximizing the performances of the unit under constraints or limit conditions.

      • Causes of quality decrease and corresponding actions.
      • Main automatic safety systems.
      • Feed pump failure, heater failure.
      • Compressor failure: fresh gas or recycle, adapted reaction and safe shutdown.

      • For each of the following processes, the operating parameters and the specific operating features are addressed.
      • Naphtha desulfurization for catalytic reformer and isomerization feed.
      • Cracked gasoline treatments, special hydrotreatments for the FCC gasoline.
      • Stabilization of the pyrolysis gasoline.
      • Hydroisomerization of the C4 cut out of the FCC to feed alkylation unit.
      • Hydrotreatment of middle distillates: kerosene and gas-oil, LCO processing.
      • Desulfurization of vacuum gasoil to FCC units.
      • Residues demetallization processes.
      • Hydrotreatments in lube oil manufacturing.

Learning Objectives

  • Upon completion of the course, the participants will be able to:
  • grasp the essence of hydrotreatment processes,
  • analyze the operation and optimization of hydrotreatment units,
  • manage the hydrogen balance in relation with the hydrogen network,
  • detect potential deficiencies by troubleshooting.

Ways & Means

  • Applications, teamwork, case studies and interactive workshops based on typical real situations.
  • Potential use of a dynamic simulator.