Heavy Cuts ProcessingRAF/REF2

Who should attend?

  • This course provides a comprehensive knowledge of refining processes available to upgrade heavy cuts into lighter ones.
Audience :
  • Engineers and supervisors interested or involved in the processing of heavy cuts.

Level : Foundation

Course Content

  • OVERVIEW OF CONVERSION PROCESSES

      • Origins and characteristics of conversion unit feeds.
      • Different types of conversion processes (principles, performance, operating ranges, economics): thermal cracking processes, catalytic cracking without hydrogen, catalytic cracking with hydrogen.
  • THERMAL CONVERSION PROCESSES

      • Visbreaking and effects on quantity and stability of heavy fuel oils.
      • Delayed coking: process characteristics, process flow diagram, purification of the cracked products with hydrogen and end destination.
      • Management of coke drum switch and main steps of the decoking procedure, coke handling.
      • Flexicoking and fluid coker: principle, integration in the refinery and power.
  • CATALYTIC CRACKING

      • Main fluid catalytic cracking processes.
      • Catcracking feed characteristics.
      • Mechanisms of catalytic cracking reactions and mode of action of FCC catalysts.
      • Yields and characteristics of FCC effluents with overview of purification treatments: propylene recovery, alkylation, ETBE and gasoline pool, LCO hydrotreatment.
      • Analysis of FCC operating balances.
      • Summary of operating parameters in the reaction section and in the regenerator.
      • FCC alternates to treat residues (R2R, HOC, etc.).
      • Maximization of C3 & C4 olefins, gasoline or cracked gasoil (LCO) production.
      • Presentation of different process schemes.
  • DISTILLATE HYDROCRACKING

      • Different reactions of the hydrocracking process.
      • Catalysts: hydrotreating and hydrocracking; poisons and regeneration.
      • Hydrocracking processes: different types, process flow diagram, operating conditions.
      • Analysis of hydrocracking operating: parameters, hydrogen balance, sulfur balance.
      • Associated unit: hydrogen production, sulfur recovery.
      • Product yields and quality utilizations.
  • RESIDUE PROCESSING

      • Overview of existing processes to upgrade vacuum residues: hydrotreatment, hydroconversion.
      • Associated units.
      • Refinery configurations with deasphalting unit.
  • LUBE BASE STOCKS MANUFACTURE

      • Classification and required properties of base oils.
      • Main lube base stocks manufacturing schemes: vacuum distillation unit, deasphalting, extraction, dewaxing, hydrofinishing.

Learning Objectives

  • Upon completion of the course, the participants will be able to:
  • understand differences between refining conversion processes with regard to planning, operations and investment issues,
  • analyze the operating parameters of these conversion processes,
  • acquire the basics for operating cracking units,
  • know about on the latest developments in heavy cuts processing.

Ways & Means

  • Case studies based on real industrial situations.