From Chlorine to PVC: Production Processes


Who should attend?

  • This course provides comprehensive technical information on chlorine and PVC processes and characteristics, enabling a rapid immersion in the chlorochemistry industry.
Public :
  • Professionals: researchers; production, process and product development engineers interested in these production lines.

Level : Proficiency

Course Content


      • Overview of chlorine and derivatives uses worldwide.
      • Chlorine: a very reactive chemical. Main raw materials. Uses.
      • Strict safety rules, transport constraints.
      • Recycling of chlorinated products.

      • Main markets for caustic soda and chlorine.
      • Preparation of brine: extraction of salt, purification and filtration of brine. Quality criteria.
      • Electrolysis:
      • Principle of salt solution electrolysis, with coproduction of hydrogen and caustic soda. Ratios for production.
      • Membrane electrolysis: from mercury cells to more environment friendly membrane technology. Diaphragm technology. Comparative operating conditions and specific energy consumption.
      • Safety and environment aspects.
      • Chlorine and hydrogen treatment:
      • Chlorine desiccation, compression and liquefaction. Storage and transport of liquid chlorine.
      • Safety and elimination of chlorinated effluents. Management of bleach workshop, inert treatment.
      • Hydrogen cooling, desiccation and uses.

      • General features of the various DCE production processes: direct chlorination, balanced process, oxychlorination.
      • Analysis of a typical VCM process, combining direct use of chlorine and indirect use of recycled HCl.
      • Industrial technologies: fixed or fluidized catalytic reactors.
      • VCM production by pyrolysis: DCE cracking, by-product separation and VCM purification.
      • Flexibility of the processes and integration depending on various schemes to minimize the production of chlorhydric acid and energy consumption.
      • Toxicity aspects for DCE, VCM.
      • Examples of chloromethanes production and of VCM production, by both ethylene route and acetylene route from coal.

      • PVC, a very versatile polymer. Various types of PVC products (general purpose and specialties). Main markets. Analysis of the added value from salt, electricity and ethylene to PVC.
      • The growth and future of PVC markets, regarding costs, environmental concerns.
      • General purpose PVC: product main characteristics.
      • Various processes and industrial constraints: polymerization in emulsion, in suspension, in mass. Main steps, control of exothermicity, polymer purification, compounding stage.
      • Analysis of the batch suspension process: technology developments towards minimizing cycle time, hence minimizing fixed production costs.
      • Specialty PVC:
      • Major uses.
      • Production of copolymers. Emulsion, micro-suspension, chlorinated PVC.

Learning Objectives

  • Upon completion of the course, the participants will be able to:
  • describe the origin, the applications of chlorinated compounds,
  • understand the structure and the role of the industry of chlorine and main derivatives,
  • analyze the principle of the various processes of production for chlorine and PVC.

Ways & Means

  • Detailed course material.
  • Pictures/videos of main equipment and samples.
  • The content of this course can be adapted to client needs.