Extra Heavy Crude Oil Upgrading

RPC/UPGRADE

Who should attend?

  • This course provides a broad technical information on heavy crude upgrading and conversion processes.
Audience :
  • Engineers and staff from upstream and downstream sectors interested or involved in heavy crude upgrading projects or in conversion processes.

Level : Proficiency

Course Content

  • CRUDE OIL PROPERTIES

      • Main physical and chemical properties and standard tests of crude oils.
      • Extra heavy crude properties in contrast to classical crude oils.
  • UPGRADER PRINCIPLES & OBJECTIVES

      • Production, fluidification and transportation of extra heavy crude oils. Different ways to upgrade heavy crude oils. Overview of an upgrader, role and purposes of the different processes.
  • ATMOSPHERIC & VACUUM DISTILLATION

      • Upgrader distillation units: principles of distillation, capacity, process flowsheets.
      • Atmospheric and vacuum distillation unit: operating conditions, material balance, energy consumption and heat recovery, tower and equipment characteristics.
      • Crude oil desalting unit: purpose, operating conditions, specific solutions to process heavy crude oils. Corrosion and corrosion prevention in atmospheric and vacuum distillation units.
  • THERMAL CONVERSION UNITS: VISBREAKING & DELAYED COKING

      • Heavy cuts thermal conversion processes.
      • Visbreaking: feed and products, product properties, process flow diagram, operating conditions; specific equipment: furnace, soaker, separation section, stability of heavy cracked fuel oils.
      • Delayed coking:
      • General description of coking processes: chemical reactions, process performances.
      • Delayed coking process description: feed and products, material balance, product properties; process flow diagram, operating conditions; technology of furnace and coke drums; coke types and users; operation of a delayed coking unit: coking cycle, decoking cycle and switch management, coke handling.
      • Others coking processes: fluid coking, flexicoking.
      • Integration of flexicoking units in upgrading schemes of heavy crudes.
  • UPGRADER HYDROTREATMENTS TO PROCESS NAPHTHA & DISTILLATE

      • Origin of feeds and related characteristics.
      • Hydrotreatment chemical reactions and hydrogen consumption.
      • Hydrotreatment catalysts: composition, role and mode of action.
      • Hydrotreatment processes: process flow diagram, operating conditions, products characteristics.
  • UPGRADER HYDROCRACKER (HCK) OR MILD HYDROCRACKER (MHC)

      • Main methods of cracking heavy cuts: thermal, catalytic and hydrocracking processes.
      • Specific hydrocracking chemical reactions: exothermicity, hydrogen consumption.
      • Hydrocracking catalysts: composition, main properties and poisons.
      • Mild hydrocracker (MHC) unit: process flow diagram, feed and products, material balance.
  • HYDROGEN MANUFACTURING PLANTS

      • Different processes for hydrogen production (SMR and POX).
      • Steam methane reforming (SMR): material balance, feed and products, preliminary desulfurization and sulfur trap, chemical reactions, catalysts, process scheme, operating conditions.
      • Steam reforming furnace and steam production. CO conversion (operating conditions, catalyst). Hydrogen purification (principle of a PSA unit, flow diagram and performances).
      • Gasification processes (POX, partial oxidation).
      • Feeds: heavy cuts, residues…
      • Gasification process principle, material balance, simplified process flow sheet and operating conditions. Soot trapping and ash management. Gas washing and purification, CO conversion.
  • H2S REMOVAL & SULFUR RECOVERY PROCESS

      • Overview of sulfur removal and recovery.
      • Amine units: process flow scheme and operating conditions, safety issues.
      • Sulfur recovery units: process principle, chemical reactions, thermal stage, catalytic stages, sulfur recovery, tail gas incineration; process scheme, operating conditions, sulfur yield.
      • Tail gas treatment: Sulfreen, Clauspol, SCOT; principles and operating conditions.
  • OTHER CONVERSION PROCESSES

      • Deasphalting units: vacuum residues structure and properties; deasphalting principles: different deasphalting solvents, overall flow sheet, operating conditions; integration of deasphating units in conversion schemes.
      • Residue hydroconversion processes: examples of feed properties. Metals in catalytic hydroconversion processes, fixed bed technologies; ebullated bed technologies.

Learning Objectives

  • Upon completion of the course, the participants will be able to:
  • know about various extra heavy crude oils and heavy cuts for processing,
  • understand the role of different units in a heavy crude upgrading plant,
  • acquire a good understanding of the operation of these units and the specific features related to extra heavy crude oil processing.