Distillation Column Design

PSE/DESIGN-E

Who should attend?

  • To provide a comprehensive knowledge of the design methods of an industrial distillation tower.
Audience :
  • Process engineers.

Level : Proficiency

Course Content

  • REMINDER ABOUT SEPARATION PROCESSES USED IN THE PETROLEUM INDUSTRY

      • Processes based on liquid-vapor equilibria, liquid-liquid equilibria, adsorption selectivity, liquid-solid equilibria, permeability.
  • STEPS INVOLVED IN THE DESIGN OF A CLASSICAL DISTILLATION COLUMN

      • Study basis: feed characteristics, pseudo-components, products specifications), other constraints, key components, estimated material balance. Operating pressure: selection, profile, control.
      • Heat balance: condenser and reboiler duties, industrial configurations.
      • Separating power: number of theoretical trays, liquid and vapor traffics, feed inlet location.
      • Basics for economic optimization.
  • SHORT CUT METHODS FOR HYDROCARBON SEPARATION

      • Total reflux (Fenske method). Minimum reflux (Maxwell and Underwood methods). General correlation of Gilliland-Maxwell.
      • Practical application to the predesign of simple refinery towers.
  • OPERATING PARAMETERS OF AN INDUSTRIAL DISTILLATION COLUMN

      • Material balance, separation quality, graphical representation.
      • Pressure.
      • Heat balance.
      • Flow rates.
      • Concentration and temperature profiles.
  • SEPARATING POWER OF AN INDUSTRIAL DISTILLATION COLUMN

      • Parameters related to the separating power: L/V ratio, reflux ratio, reboiling ratio, number of theoretical stages, efficiency of the real trays, location of the feed inlet.
      • Change of separating power at a constant material balance.
      • How to optimize the operation. Prominence of the process control quality.
  • EQUIPMENT TECHNOLOGY

      • Trays: way they act, technology, performances, flexibility.
      • Packings: way they act, structured or random packings, limitations, pressure drop, distribution and channeling phenomenon.
      • Distribution systems.
  • PROCESS CONTROL

      • Adaptability of process control to actual disturbances.
      • Troubleshooting of disturbances: origin (feed, condenser, reboiler) and consequences (liquid vapor flow rates disturbances, material balance modification, off-spec. products).
      • Material balance control: use of a sensitive tray.
      • Temperature control systems: implementation of a temperature-reflux rate cascade or temperature-reboiler duty cascade, examples with a debutanizer and a benzene-aromatics column.
      • Impact of feed changes: temperature (optimization of the heat balance), flow rate (feed forward control), composition (tuning of the material balance and the separating power).
      • Change of operating conditions: implementation of control systems based on product quality measurement.

Learning Objectives

  • Upon completion of the course, the participants will be able to:
  • know the operation of refining separation processes based on L/V equilibrium: distillation, absorption, stripping, azeotropic and extractive distillations, columns with side draw off,
  • know the short cut methods and how to get all the necessary information for final design,
  • be able to design an industrial classical distillation tower,
  • know the operating variables and control systems used for industrial distillation columns and to be able to choose the relevant process control scheme.

Ways & Means

  • Lectures with a lot of practical exercises related to industrial situations and case studies (by simulation).
  • Specific and detailed documentation.