Current & Future Automotive Fuels

APD/AUTFUEL

Who should attend?

  • This course provides a thorough understanding of the evolution of motor fuels, which is closely linked to the reduction of the vehicle emissions. The first 2 days deal with the current fuels, while alternative fuels are treated during days 3 and 4.
Audience :
  • Engineers, and technicians from all industries concerned by motor fuel evolution: car makers, refining, fuels traders, agro-fuels manufacturers…

Level : Advanced

Course Content

  • GASOLINE

      • Market trends and shares of different gasoline grades.
      • Principle of the spark-ignition engine.
      • Required properties for automotive gasoline:
      • Volatility: vapor pressure and ASTM distillation. Volatility influence on the engine operation.
      • Combustion: nature and incidence of knocking, chemical composition/combustion quality relationship, definition and measure of the gasoline octane numbers.
      • Toxicity: aromatics and olefins content.
      • Corrosiveness and stability.
      • Exhaust gas pollution: gas composition and impact on the environment.
      • Relations between gasoline specifications and vehicle regulations (EURO 6 standard).
      • Manufacturing scheme of automotive fuels. Characteristics of bases produced in refineries.
  • DIESEL FUEL

      • Market trends.
      • Principle of the compression-ignition engine.
      • Required properties for Diesel fuel:
      • Combustion: auto-ignition delay. Definition and measure of the cetane number. Influence of the cetane number on the combustion quality. Chemical composition/combustion quality relationship.
      • Cold flow properties: cloud point and Cold Filtering Plugging Point (CFPP).
      • Pollution by exhaust gases: particles, NOx:
      • Compositional constraints: reduction of polyaromatic components (PAH - PolyAromatic Hydrocarbons) - High impact on the diesel fuel manufacturing.
      • Relations between diesel-fuel specifications and vehicle regulations (EURO 6 standard).
      • Diesel fuel formulation and manufacturing (hydrodesulfurization unit - in line blending).
  • ALTERNATIVE FUELS FOR GASOLINE & DIESEL ENGINES

      • Alternative fuels: background and challenges, production routes, well to wheel cycle.
      • Alternative fuels for gasoline engines: ethanol and ETBE.
      • New manufacturing paths to meet the new and more severe constraints on ecological balance. Flex-fuel engine. Role of the new alternative fuels in the reduction of the CO2 emissions of the vehicles.
      • Alternative fuels for diesel engines: fatty acid esters and hydrotreated oils.
      • Characteristics and impacts of the fatty acid esters on the engine performance.
      • Potential issues linked to the presence of fatty acid esters: storage stability, oxidation stability, low temperature operability.
      • Second generation alternative fuel for diesel engine BTL. Synthesis alternative fuels GTL and CTL.
  • ALTERNATIVE FUELS FOR TURBINES - BIOMASS RESOURCE BALANCE - GASEOUS FUELS

      • Alternative fuels for turbines (aeronautics):
      • Main production routes certified (or soon certified) of Biojetfuels: hydrotreated vegetable oils, synthetic biojets, biological pathways. Impact on: logistics, the aircraft, and the performance of the turbine.
      • Possible sources of biomass resource:
      • 1st generation, new sources: used oils, jatropha…
      • 2nd generation: lignocellulosic pathway
      • 3rd generation seaweed based.
      • Gaseous fuels:
      • LPG, LNG and DME.
      • Hydrogen: principle, performance and constraints related to the use of the fuel cell.

Learning Objectives

  • Upon completion of the course, participants will be able to:
  • list the key properties for automotive fuels (now and in the future),
  • identify the main trends of fuel evolution due to: new regulations and/or new motor technologies,
  • describe how catalytic converters allow a significant reduction of the contaminants from the exhaust gases,
  • describe the different ways to manufacture the main alternative fuels, and the impacts of those on the vehicle emissions.

Ways & Means

  • Use of pedagogical games. The first 2 days are dedicated to the current fuels and presented by a refining expert. The 2 following days, alternative fuels (current and next generations) are presented by experts of the different branches.