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Current & Future Automotive Fuels

Current & Future Automotive Fuels

3 days
APD/AUTFUEL
Sessions
This course is not scheduled.
Who should attend?

Audience

    • Engineers and technicians from all industries concerned by motor fuel evolution: car makers, automotive supplier, refining, agro-fuels manufacturers…

Level

  • Advanced
  • This course provides a thorough understanding of the evolution of motor fuels, resulting from new engine technologies and environmental constraints.
Learning Objectives
  • Upon completion of the course, participants will be able to:
  • list the key properties for automotive fuels (now and in the future),
  • identify the main trends of fuel evolution due to: new regulations and/or new motor technologies,
  • describe how catalytic converters allow a significant reduction of the contaminants from the exhaust gases,
  • cite the components of fuels (their chemical family) which favor the production of pollutants in the exhaust gases.
Course Content

GASOLINE

1 day

  • Market trends and shares of different gasoline grades.
  • Principle of the spark-ignition engine.
  • Required properties for automotive gasoline:
  • Volatility: vapor pressure and ASTM distillation. Volatility influence on the engine operation.
  • Combustion: nature and incidence of knock, chemical composition/combustion quality relationship, definition and measure of the gasoline octane numbers.
  • Toxicity: aromatics and olefins content.
  • Corrosiveness and stability.
  • Exhaust gas pollution: gas composition and impact on the environment.
  • Relations between gasoline specifications and vehicle regulations (EURO 6 standard).
  • Manufacturing scheme of automotive fuels. Characteristics of bases produced in refineries.

DIESEL FUEL

1 day

  • Market trends.
  • Principle of the compression-ignition engine.
  • Required properties for Diesel fuel:
  • Combustion: auto-ignition delay. Definition and measure of the cetane number. Influence of the cetane number on the combustion quality. Chemical composition/Combustion quality relationship.
  • Cold flow properties: cloud point and Cold Filtering Plugging Point (CFPP).
  • Pollution by exhaust gases: particles, NOx:
  • Compositional constraints: reduction of polyaromatic components (PAH - PolyAromatic Hydrocarbons) - High impact on the diesel fuel manufacturing.
  • Relations between diesel-fuel specifications and vehicle regulations (EURO 6 standard).
  • Diesel fuel formulation and manufacturing (Hydro-desulfurization unit - in line blending).

ALTERNATIVE FUELS

1 day

  • For each alternative fuel, advantages and drawbacks, performance and vehicle adaptation are analyzed.
  • The emission balances are also compared.
  • Gaseous fuel: Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG-Motor Fuel), Natural Gas Vehicles (NGV) and Dimethyl Ether (DME).
  • Liquid fuels: ethers, Gas-To-Liquids (GTL), Coal-To-Liquids (CTL) and other bases.
  • First generation biofuels: ethanol, ethers (ETBE and MTBE), E10, E85, biodiesel B30, B100.
  • Second generation biofuels: Biomass-to-Liquids (BTL and NExBTL).
  • Emulsions: Diesel-Water Emulsion.
Ways & Means
  • The first 2 days are dedicated to the current fuels. The 3rd day, the agro-fuels (current and next generations) are presented by an agro-fuels specialist.