Crude Oil & Vacuum Distillation

RAF/DADSV-E

Who should attend?

  • This course provides a deeper understanding of the operating and monitoring of atmospheric and vacuum distillation units.
Audience :
  • Engineers, senior operation personnel and technical supervisors interested or involved in the operation, optimization and monitoring of crude oil atmospheric distillation and residue vacuum distillation units.

Level : Proficiency

Course Content

  • IMPACT OF CRUDE OIL QUALITY ON PRODUCTS

      • Tuning of the volatility of petroleum fractions in view of their end-use: constraints and flexibility of cut points; principal problems related to quality.
      • Crude oils: properties (TBP analysis), product yields, related margins.
      • Main schemes for crude oil fractionation.
  • OPERATING CONDITIONS OF AN ATMOSPHERIC & VACUUM DISTILLATION UNITS

      • Material balance: cut points, product characteristics, separation quality, fractionation capability.
      • Top condensation and pressure in the column - Partial pressures.
      • Feed vaporization: inlet temperature, overflash.
      • Product side stripping.
      • Heat balance of the column - Pumparounds and heat integration.
      • Modern internals for crude oil distillation column.
  • DESALTING & CORROSION CONTROL

      • Corrosion by sulfur, naphthenic acids and mineral salts.
      • Crude oil desalting: purpose, functioning of the desalter, operating variables and troubleshooting.
      • Downstream neutralizing treatment: purpose, advantages and drawbacks.
      • Controlling corrosion at the head of topping column and anticorrosion techniques.
  • SAFETY & ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS

      • Process risks: H2S, inflammability, auto-inflammation.
      • Risks related to main equipment: furnace, pumps, vacuum system.
      • Heat recovery optimization and energy consumption.
      • Efficient and low energy consumption vacuum equipment (steam ejector vs. liquid ring pump).
  • PROCESS CONTROL, OPERATION & TROUBLESHOOTING OF MULTI-DRAW-OFF COLUMNS

      • Different control systems in atmospheric and vacuum distillation columns, using flowrate, level or temperature control.
      • Cut point control: modification of flowrate of a cut and consequences on the column.
      • Impact of the preflash on the operation of the furnace and the atmospheric column.
      • Separation control: tuning of the separation selectivity, consequences on the column and on the heat recovery system.
      • Influence of pressure and pressure control.
      • Case studies on overall control setup of these two distillation columns and disturbances.
      • Maximizing the performances of the unit under constraints or limit conditions.
      • Start-up - Shutdown - Troubleshooting.
  • DISTURBANCES & TROUBLESHOOTING

      • Case studies (in groups) related to disturbances and incidents; detection, consequences and corrective actions:
      • Stripping shutdown.
      • Failure of one pumparound pump, of the furnace.
      • Loss of part of the feed, etc.

Learning Objectives

  • Upon completion of the course, the participants will be able to:
  • grasp fundamental process control and the impact of each controller on the process and on the characteristics of the cuts produced,
  • analyze desalter operation and corrosion monitoring,
  • detect potential deficiencies by troubleshooting.

Ways & Means

  • Applications, teamwork, case studies and interactive workshops based on typical real situations.
  • Possible use of a dynamic simulator for crude oil distillation unit operation issues.