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Cracking & Chemical Treatments of Purification

Cracking & Chemical Treatments of Purification

5 days
PCH/RCIVAPO-E
Sessions
This course is not scheduled.
Who should attend?

Audience

    • Operating personnel in steamcracking plants: experienced outside operators, panel operators, foremen and all technicians involved in the working of these sections.

Level

  • Proficiency
  • This course brings technical information on the steamcracker sections focused on chemical transformations: cracking, gas purification, hydrogenations or purification stages on a solid (drying).
Learning Objectives
  • Upon completion of the course, participants will be able to:
  • analyze chemical or physico-chemical phenomena involved in the different sections of the steamcracking complex, in order to solve problems in case of incidents,
  • explain the meaning of the main operating parameters of these processes and the influence of operating variables.
Course Content

BLOCK DIAGRAM OF THE STEAMCRACKER UNIT

0.25 day

  • Roles of the various sections.
  • Feedstock origins, products types, yields.

MAIN PETROCHEMICAL INTERMEDIATES

0.25 day

  • Definition of hydrocarbon families. Feedstock composition.
  • Potential outlets and main industrial uses of olefinic, diolefinic and aromatics hydrocarbons.

CHEMICAL REACTIONS & CATALYSIS

1 day

  • Chemical reactions, chemical reaction uses for the mass balance production.
  • Studies of the thermodynamic conditions to make the chemical reaction feasible.
  • Chemical reactions limited by the chemical balance, rules to outline the shift in the chemical balance.
  • Speed of chemical reactions. Effect of a catalyst, catalyst behavior. Poisons and inhibitors.
  • Nota: these basic elements have been provided throughout the course as they enhance the understanding of the different topics.

STEAMCRACKING

1 day

  • Onsite unit description; operating conditions of the different sections, product yields.
  • Analysis of technical characteristics of desired transformations.
  • Elements of pyrolysis monitoring: definitions of the severity and the selectivity.
  • Influence of the operating parameters/pressure, temperature, flowrate, steam dilution ratio on the unit performances.
  • Impact of the feedstock origin on product yields.
  • Regulation and advanced process control.

CRACKED GASES PURIFICATION

0.25 day

  • Main washing systems for cracked gases: choice of systems implemented.
  • Amine washing system: absorption and regeneration.
  • Caustic soda washing system and treatment of waste caustic sodas.
  • The sequence of washing stages.
  • Influence of the operating parameters on the washing quality.

DRYING OF CRACKED GASES

0.25 day

  • Adsorption-desorption balance.
  • Operation of cracked gases dryers during the drying and regeneration steps, drying optimization (temperature/run relationship).

TREATMENTS WITH HYDROGEN

1.5 days

  • Role and purpose of the different hydrogenation processes, chemical reaction characteristics, main types of catalysts implemented.
  • Purification of hydrogen by methanation.
  • Studies of selective hydrogenation units for C2, C3 and C4 cuts and hydrotreatment units for pyrolysis gasolines: analysis of the operating conditions of the unit, operating parameters of the plant, case studies for unit adjustment, main incidents.

DISTURBANCES - INCIDENTS

0.5 day

  • Incidents on the furnace: loss of feed flowrate, high temperature on one or more paths - Loss of heat - Loss of water hardening…
  • Incidents on gas washing towers: loss of topping up of washing base, abnormal temperature of the base, loss of water washing at outlet of the tower.
  • Incidents on dryers: insufficient regeneration, humid gas at outlet.
  • Incidents on selective hydrogenations: management of feedstock inhibitors, changes of hydrogen quality, loss of activity and/or selectivity.
  • Nota: this part is delivered through case studies and analysis of feedback of on-site incidents.
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Ways & Means
  • Case studies done in groups based on typical running situations presented in the course.
  • Possible intervention of operators experienced in the daily operation of the plant.