Catalysts in Refining Processes

RAF/CATAL-E

Who should attend?

  • This course provides a deeper understanding of catalysts: their preparation, performance control, troubleshooting during operation, unit start-up, shutdown and regeneration.
Audience :
  • Engineers and managers in the operations, process development or technical departments of refineries.
  • Project engineers, process engineers or technical assistance and commissioning personnel in engineering or licensing and catalyst suppliers.

Level : Advanced

Course Content

  • CHARACTERISTICS & PROPERTIES OF INDUSTRIAL CATALYSTS

      • Main types of catalytic processes and related catalyst markets in the refining and heavy petrochemical industries.
      • Main features of catalysis:
      • Thermodynamics in a chemical reaction. Kinetics in heterogeneous catalysis.
      • Quality requirements for an industrial catalyst, characterization of its properties.
      • Processes for catalyst synthesis and industrial manufacture of catalysts.
  • OPERATION & PERFORMANCE CONTROL OF INDUSTRIAL CATALYSTS

      • The following items are covered for each refining unit: process and chemical reaction characteristics, selection and developments of catalytic formula, catalyst implementation, process flow diagram; process performances and catalyst monitoring. The specific features for the corresponding type of catalyst are emphasized.
      • Catalytic reforming catalysts:
      • Precautions for start-up, monitoring and maintaining catalyst activity, incidents. Regeneration steps.
      • Catalytic formulas for the regenerative process.
      • Solution for benzene removal.
      • Isomerization catalysts:
      • Different types of catalysts and process arrangement. Impact on the resulting octane number.
      • Influence of poisons; operational constraints linked to the type of catalyst.
      • Catalytic cracking catalysts:
      • Zeolite structure and design for yield optimization.
      • Analysis of catalyst ageing.
      • Improvements of LCO and propylene yields.
      • Improvements in catalyst regeneration. Metal passivation and solutions for vanadium effects.
      • Additives for emission reduction; adaptation for residue treatment.
      • C3/C4 Alkylation catalysts:
      • Mechanisms of liquid homogeneous HF and H2SO4 catalysis.
      • Process performance and particular constraints.
      • Hydrotreatment and hydrocracking catalysts:
      • Active phase structure, sulfiding at start-up.
      • Specific issues in treating unsaturated cuts from coker, visbreaker and FCC.
      • Evolution of catalytic formulas and processes for heavy cuts and residue hydrotreatment.
      • Selective hydrotreatment of FCC gasolines minimizing octane loss.
      • Adaptation of catalytic formulas for heavy feedstock hydrocracking.
      • Catalysts for Claus converter and tail gas treatment:
      • Claus catalysts. Impact of sulfur deposition and temperature on conversion.
      • COS and CS2 hydrolysis. Deactivation and regeneration.
      • Adaptation to tail gas treatment processes.
  • IMPLEMENTATION & LIFE CYCLE OF CATALYSTS

      • Precautions in the transport and the manipulation of catalysts.
      • Follow-up of performances, from the start-up to the regeneration; metals recovery.
  • VISIT OF TEST AND PILOT FACILITIES OF IFP Energies nouvelles

      • Different stages of testing at micro-pilot, pilot and semi-industrial scale.

Learning Objectives

  • Upon completion of the course, the participants will be able to:
  • grasp the role and the basic mechanism of a catalyst,
  • assess the link between preparation and catalytic properties,
  • understand the issues related to industrial use (start-up, shutdown, regeneration, etc.),
  • analyze the influence of operating parameters on catalytic selectivity and stability,
  • master the methods for performance monitoring.

Ways & Means

  • Active participation of trainees through interactive exercises to grasp the key points of the course.
  • A summary per unit is built to highlight key issues.
  • Possible intervention by an expert from IFP Energies nouvelles.