3 days MOT/PRESTAE-E
- Engineers and technical staff involved in the design, development, calibration and testing of engines, who need to know the mechanisms of pollutants formation and current and future exhaust gases after-treatment systems.
- This course provides a deeper knowledge and competencies on emissions and after-treatment systems.
- Upon completion of the course, participants will be able to:
- know the fundamentals on the physics of the combustion and the mechanisms of pollutants formation,
- master the contribution of alternative engines to atmospheric pollution phenomena,
- know the regulations restrictions,
- know the nature of the emitted pollutants,
- use emission reduction levers at source,
- know testing methodologies, the standard tools used to measure pollutants (gas analyzers, opacity meters), the kind of measurements and analyses done on exhaust gases,
- understand on board diagnostics (OBD) requirements,
- know how the gasoline and diesel fuel characteristics affect the engine behavior,
- understand the structure of engine management system and its impact on emissions.
- IC Engine Fundamentals.
Air pollution, roots & consequences, regulations 0.5 day
- Fundamentals of combustion.
- Mechanisms of pollutants formation.
- Primary and secondary pollutants.
- Regulated and non-regulated pollutants (NRP).
- Regulations: CO2, emissions, WLTP.
- Influence of vehicle characteristics and powertrain adaptation on emissions (cost down, inertia class, gear ratios, …).
- Production conformity.
Atmospheric phenomena 0.25 day
- Air quality: space (local or global) and time scales. Consequences and impacts.
- Phenomena: ozone layer, greenhouse effect, acid rains, photochemical smog, …
- Air quality standards, regulations applied to the car emissions and approval cycles.
Testing methodology - Measurements on engines & exhaust gas analysis 0.25 day
- Measurements of pollutants on engine test bench.
- Measurements of exhaust emissions and evaporation losses on chassis dynamometer: operation of a chassis dynamometer, key features to monitor, calibration of analyzers, control of the stability of analyzers/control of leaks, conditioning of the vehicle.
- Evolution of analysis materials: trends and developments.
Emissions reduction levers at source 1 day
- Diesel: combustion, mechanisms of formation of pollutants, influence of engine parameters, operating limits, injection equipment, air loop engine management, fuel impact, calibration.
- Gasoline: combustion, mechanisms of formation of pollutants, influence of engine parameters, operating limits, injection equipment, air loop engine management, fuel impact, calibration.
Exhaust gas after treatment oxidation & tri-functional catalysis 0.75 day
- Oxidation and tri-functional catalysis
- Automotive exhaust catalysis: catalytic reactions, mechanisms, catalysts, precious metals, performance criteria, functional definitions (conversion rate, after-treatment related constraints, gasoline and Diesel).
- Oxidation catalysis: efficiency, field, initiation, conversion rate, case of methane, sulfur and particles oxidation.
- Tri-functional catalysis: stoichiometric conditions, air/fuel ratio control, cold conditions (HC, exhaust thermal management), high power loop opening.
- Catalysts ageing: ageing nature, thermal (temperature and sintering), chemical (poisoning), by the accumulation of deposits coming from the lubricants, the fuels or the additives. Functional limit of catalysts ageing.
- Nitrogen Oxides Treatment
- NOx traps: operating principle (storage mechanisms, range of temperatures to use, rich mixture reduction phase), trap desulfurization.
- Selective reduction catalytic (SCR): by ammonia, urea injection strategy, use restrictions. “Clean-up” catalysts.
- Particulate filter: filtration element structure and composition regeneration strategy either by fuel additive, fuel born catalyst or by Catalytic diesel Particulates Filter (CdPF). Use of the 5th or the 7th injector.
- Installation on the vehicle: evolution towards the 4-way catalysis: in the same converter, combining the particulate filter of a nitrogen oxides treatment system (SCR or non-trap) with an oxidation catalyst.
Diagnosis & OBD regulations 0.25 day
- Introduction to the OBD in France and in the world.
- OBD homologation.
- OBD validations.