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Small Private Online Course (SPOC): Introduction to Engines & Fuels Certificate

20 days MOT/SPOCINT-E
Learning Objectives
  • Identify the different energies sources, the importance of oil and how it is used in transport and its consequences regarding the environment.
  • Explain the operation of a 4-stroke engine, efficiencies, the power and the torque.
  • Explain the specifications and refining processes to produce engine fuels.
  • Explain the formation of pollutant emissions, identify the techniques used to reduce emissions and consumption and finally identify the different after treatment systems.
  • List the pros and the cons of hybrids and explain how they work.
  • List the various alternative fuels used, and finally describe possible solutions for reducing dependency on petroleum products.
Prerequisite
  • No prerequisites for this course.
Ways and means
  • You will experiment with a new interactive way to learn while applying your knowledge to real case studies in a “serious game”, designed specifically for this SPOC.
  • Interactive pedagogical approach using Serious Game and simulators.
  • Fuel production simulator: optimize the gasoline and fuel production in a refinery to follow the engine fuels specifications.
  • Engine Test bench simulation: test an engine at a realistic test bench. Optimize engine settings to reach emissions and fuel consumption targets.

Week 1: INTRODUCTION TO ECONOMIC & ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES
  • Videos (4), Quiz (1), Online Virtual Classroom (1).
  • Estimated duration: Introduction Learning Platform (1h) - Personal work (2h) – Virtual classroom (1h).
  • Economic environment
  • International energy scene and the global economic environment.
  • Evolution of the transportation needs and its impact on the energy demand.
  • Environmental regulations which work to improve efficiency in the automotive sector.
  • Air pollution and regulations
  • Primary and secondary pollutants.
  • Air quality: space (local or global) and time scales. Consequences and impacts.
  • Air quality standards, regulations applied to the car emissions and approval cycles.
  • Regulated and non-regulated pollutants (NRP).
Week 2: INTRODUCTION TO ENGINES & FUEL PRODUCTION
  • Videos (5), Serious Game (1) about Refinery, Online Virtual Classroom.
  • Estimated duration: Personal work (3h) – Virtual classroom (1h).
  • Engine fuels
  • Situation, market, restrictions and adaptations of oil products due to the motor vehicle fleet changes.
  • Hydrocarbons structure and properties: alkanes, alkenes, aromatics, naphthenes, H/C ratio, crude structures, main characteristics expected to meet SI and Diesel engines’ needs (volatility, octane and cetane ratings, cold engine operability, sulfur content).
  • Gasoline and diesel production: petroleum cuts and crude distillation, refining processes.
  • How do engines work and basic parameters
  • How do thermal piston engines work: 4-stroke and 2-stroke cycles, gasoline/Diesel, indirect/direct injection, naturally aspirated (NA)/supercharged (SC).
  • Geometric parameters: conrod-crank system, bore, stroke, engine displacement, volumetric compression ratio, cylinder spacing, timing diagram, in-cylinder pressure signal.
  • Operating parameters.
  • Performances: torque, power, notion of load, cycle engine work, thermal load and specific power.
  • Combustion/emissions: air/fuel ratio, stoichiometry, equivalence ratio, excess air coefficient, exhaust gas specific emissions.
  • Efficiency: different efficiencies, differences between the theoretical cycle and the real cycle, specific fuel consumption (SFC), thermal balance.
Week 3: ENGINES
  • Videos (6), Quiz (1), Serious Games (1) about Engine Test Bench.
  • Online Virtual Classroom.
  • Estimated duration: Personal work (4h) – Virtual classroom (1h).
  • Combustion, emissions and after treatment systems
  • Combustion: combustion equation, determining the stoichiometric quantity and the air/fuel ratio, calorific value., flammability limit, auto-ignition delay. Comparison of SI and Diesel engines.
  • Combustion process: load control, preparing the air-fuel mixture, initiation, expansion, vibrations and noise origins.
  • Pollutants formation: gas composition and temperature effect on the regulated pollutants, temperature vs. equivalence ratio diagram to illustrate soot and NOx formation surfaces. Reduction of pollutants at the source.
  • Exhaust gas after-treatment: 3 way catalyst, DOC, DPF, SCR, Lean NOx trap.
Week 4: MOBILITY FOR TOMORROW
  • Videos (8), Quiz (1), Serious Games (2) about Engine optimization & Mobility of tomorrow, Online Virtual Classroom.
  • Conclusions - a video could be adapted to explain strategic policy of your own company.
  • Estimated duration: Personal work (4h) – Virtual classroom (1h).
  • Engine optimization
  • Impact of main engine settings on pollutant emissions and fuel consumption. Main calibration parameters and its optimization.
  • New mobility technologies
  • Hybrids: advantages, working principles and classification of hybrids.
  • GHG Emission impact of hybrids.
  • Biofuels: well to wheel, biofuels’ families.
  • Biofuels for SI engines: 1st and 2nd generations ethanol, ETBE.
  • Biofuels for Diesel engines: FAME, BTL, paraffinic fuels, algae.
  • Gaseous Fuel: CNG Compressed Natural Gas, LPG Liquefied Petroleum Gas, hydrogen.
  • Mobility of tomorrow challenges: decarbonizing energy for mobility, Improving energy efficiency of vehicles, smart city planning & sustainable lifestyles, mobility-sharing.
FINAL CERTIFICATION (optional)
  • Assignment (1).
  • Estimated duration: Personal work (2h).