5 days GCA/REACT-E
- Engineers and engineering staff in charge of designing or operating reactors in the oil refining industry.
- To provide a thorough understanding of reactor engineering and the use of multiphase flow reactors in processing plants.
- To identify the different types of multiphase reactors and their operating parameters.
- To learn about gas liquid trickle bed reactor, gas-solid fluidized bed and gas-liquid-solid fluidized bed, including flow regimes and technologies, in relation to processes such as hydrotreatment of distillates, hydroconversion of residue, FCC and Fischer Tropsch.
Ways and means
- Numerous industry-based case studies.
Other items such as choice of the most adequate technology, reactor scale-up criteria can be included in a customized course program.
Reactor engineering: manifold reactors 0.5 day
- The importance of multiphase flow, catalyst shape, contact and reaction parameters, e.g. contact time, reaction kinetics, heat of reaction, deactivation.
- Overview and analysis of these parameters through several examples of refining processes.
Reactor engineering: fundamentals 1 day
- Ideal reactors: ideal concepts and theory of flow through reactors (CSTR and plug flow reactors, CSTRs in series, axial dispersion, etc.). Residence time distribution; analysis to characterize real systems.
- External mass transfer limitations: mass transfer concept and theory through gas-liquid interphase in reactive and non-reactive systems.
- Determination of limiting step: chemical kinetics, internal diffusion, external transfer. Consequences on reactor performance.
Gas-liquid trickle bed reactors (focus on HDT) 1.25 days
- Multiphase flow through fixed bed on trickle bed in relation to hydrotreatment HDT processes.
- Main features and variables of HDT processes in the refining industry.
- Flow regimes (trickle flow, pulsed flow, bubble flow); discussion on mapping as a function of operating conditions.
- Relevant fixed bed properties (bed density and particle size) as well as their impact on operation.
- Pressure drop throughout the bed as a function of operating conditions. Fluid and bed properties; presentation of different models and correlations. Discussion.
- Mass transfer limitation in the specific HDT case.
- Design considerations. Understanding of the role of internals (tray distributors, quench systems).
- Simple calculation methods enabling the estimation of reactor performances.
Gas-solid fluidized bed and circulating fluidized beds (focus on FCC) 1.5 days
- FCC application: fluidized bed and circulating fluidized beds. Main features and variables of FCC processes in the refining industry.
- Fluidization regimes and mapping as a function of operating conditions. Bubble properties and relevance on fluidized bed operation. Correlations are provided to estimate and describe fluidized bed hydrodynamics.
- Specific technologies related to fluidized bed and circulating fluidized beds:
- standpipes enabling large catalyst circulation
- gas distributors such as perforated plates, bubble caps, spargers and rings
- gas-solid separation systems such as negative or positive pressure cyclones
- Pressure balance of a circulating fluidized bed.
Gas-liquid solid fluidized bed (focus on hydroconversion and Fischer-Tropsch) 0.75 day
- Three phase fluidized bed: mainly hydroconversion and Fischer-Tropsch applications.
- Ebullated bed involving fluidization of large particles: flow regimes, influence of operating conditions and particle properties, description of bed hydrodynamics.
- Slurry reactors involving fluidization of small particles: flow regimes, influence of operating conditions and particle properties, description of bed hydrodynamics.