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Reactor Engineering

5 days GCA/REACT-E
Level
Advanced
Audience
  • Engineers and engineering staff in charge of designing or operating reactors in the oil refining industry.
Purpose
  • This course provides a thorough understanding of reactor engineering and the use of multiphase flow reactors in processing plants.
Learning Objectives
  • Upon completion of the course, the participants will be able to:
  • identify the different types of multiphase reactors and their operating parameters,
  • learn about gas liquid trickle bed reactor, gas-solid fluidized bed and gas-liquid-solid fluidized bed, including flow regimes and technologies, in relation to processes such as hydrotreatment of distillates, hydroconversion of residue, FCC and Fischer Tropsch.
Prerequisite
  • No prerequisites for this course.
Ways and means
  • Numerous industry-based case studies.
Observation
Other items such as choice of the most adequate technology, reactor scale-up criteria can be included in a customized course program.

REACTOR ENGINEERING: MANIFOLD REACTORS 0.5 day
  • The importance of multiphase flow, catalyst shape, contact and reaction parameters, e.g. contact time, reaction kinetics, heat of reaction, deactivation.
  • Overview and analysis of these parameters through several examples of refining processes.
REACTOR ENGINEERING: FUNDAMENTALS 1 day
  • Ideal reactors: ideal concepts and theory of flow through reactors (CSTR and plug flow reactors, CSTRs in series, axial dispersion, etc.). Residence time distribution; analysis to characterize real systems.
  • External mass transfer limitations: mass transfer concept and theory through gas-liquid interphase in reactive and non-reactive systems.
  • Determination of limiting step: chemical kinetics, internal diffusion, external transfer. Consequences on reactor performance.
  • Examples.
GAS-LIQUID TRICKLE BED REACTORS (focus on HDT) 1.25 days
  • Multiphase flow through fixed bed on trickle bed in relation to hydrotreatment HDT processes.
  • Main features and variables of HDT processes in the refining industry.
  • Flow regimes (trickle flow, pulsed flow, bubble flow); discussion on mapping as a function of operating conditions.
  • Relevant fixed bed properties (bed density and particle size) as well as their impact on operation.
  • Pressure drop throughout the bed as a function of operating conditions. Fluid and bed properties; presentation of different models and correlations. Discussion.
  • Mass transfer limitation in the specific HDT case.
  • Design considerations. Understanding of the role of internals (tray distributors, quench systems).
  • Simple calculation methods enabling the estimation of reactor performances.
GAS-SOLID FLUIDIZED BED & CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BEDS (focus on FCC) 1.5 days
  • FCC application: fluidized bed and circulating fluidized beds. Main features and variables of FCC processes in the refining industry.
  • Fluidization regimes and mapping as a function of operating conditions. Bubble properties and relevance on fluidized bed operation. Correlations are provided to estimate and describe fluidized bed hydrodynamics.
  • Specific technologies related to fluidized bed and circulating fluidized beds:
  • Standpipes enabling large catalyst circulation.
  • Gas distributors such as perforated plates, bubble caps, spargers and rings.
  • Gas-solid separation systems such as negative or positive pressure cyclones.
  • Pressure balance of a circulating fluidized bed.
GAS-LIQUID SOLID FLUIDIZED BED (focus on hydroconversion & Fischer-Tropsch) 0.75 day
  • Three phase fluidized bed: mainly hydroconversion and Fischer-Tropsch applications.
  • Ebullated bed involving fluidization of large particles: flow regimes, influence of operating conditions and particle properties, description of bed hydrodynamics.
  • Slurry reactors involving fluidization of small particles: flow regimes, influence of operating conditions and particle properties, description of bed hydrodynamics.