5 days REE/CYDAR
- Reservoir engineers, petroleum engineers and experienced technicians interested in measuring relative permeability.
- This course provides skills for designing and interpreting lab experiments that will provide relative permeability as an input in reservoir engineering studies.
- Upon completion of the course, participants will be able to:
- describe the theory underlying the methods for assessing relative permeability in a lab,
- select the most appropriate method,
- design and interpret experiments.
- No prerequisites for this course.
Ways and means
- Hands-on practice through real lab experiments carried out during the training.
- CYDAR™ software is used to design and interpret the experiments and to perform additional exercises.
Basics on two-phase flow in porous media 0.5 day
- Two-phase flow equations: definitions and notion of relative permeability.
- Notion of capillarity, pore level mechanisms and core-scale modeling.
- Capillary pressure curves, hysteresis, wettability.
Principle of Kr determination 0.5 day
- Unsteady-state and steady-state methods.
- Semi-dynamic method and Kr from centrifuge.
- Analytic and numerical interpretations.
- Laboratory versus reservoir conditions.
Unsteady state 2 days
- Principle and exercises using analytical solutions (JBN, Welge, Jones-Roszelle methods).
- Principle of numerical simulations necessary to take into account the capillary pressure.
- Direct simulations and automatic history matching. Hands-on with CYDAR™.
- Multistep experiments for simultaneous determination of the capillary pressure.
Steady state 1 day
- Advantages and drawbacks. Analytical and numerical Kr determinations.
- Hands-on practice with CYDAR™.
Centrifuge 0.5 day
- Relative permeabilities from centrifuge experiments: analytical calculation (Hagoort), interpretation of single and multispeed speed experiments.
Experimental considerations 0.5 day
- Use of dispersion to quantify sample heterogeneities, principle of Kr upscaling.
- Saturation measurements, mass balance, Karl Fisher.
- Principle and advantages of in-situ measurements.
- Problems using crude oil: filtration, gas nucleation, asphaltenes flocculation.
- Dead volumes corrections.