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E-391 - Laboratory Determination of Relative Permeabilities

5 days GIS/CYDAR
Level
Advanced
Audience
  • Engineers interested in measuring relative permeability
Purpose
  • To enhance skills for designing and interpreting lab experiments that will provide relative permeability to input in reservoir engineering studies
Learning Objectives
  • To understand the theory underlying the methods for assessing relative permeability in a lab
  • To learn how to select the most appropriate method
  • To acquire hands-on experience through a real lab experiment carried out during the training
  • To use a software program for experiment design and interpretation
Ways and means
  • Exercises and case studies using the software program CYDAR™
  • Real experiment is prepared, performed and interpreted

Basics on two-phase flow in porous media
  • Two-Phase flow equations: definitions and notion of relative permeability
  • Notion of capillarity, pore level mechanisms and core-scale modeling
  • Capillary pressure curves, hysteresis, wettability
Principle of kr determination
  • Unsteady-state and steady-state methods
  • Semi-dynamic method and Kr from centrifuge
  • Analytic and numerical interpretations
  • Laboratory versus reservoir conditions
Unsteady state
  • Principle and exercises using analytical solutions (JBN, Welge, Jones-Roszelle methods)
  • Principle of numerical simulations necessary to take into account the capillary pressure. Direct simulations and automatic history matching. Hands-on with CYDAR™
  • Multistep experiments for simultaneous determination of the capillary pressure
Steady state
  • Advantages and drawbacks - Analytical and numerical Kr determinations
  • Hands-on practice with CYDAR™
Centrifuge
  • Relative permeabilities from centrifuge experiments: Analytical calculation (Hagoort), interpretation of single and multispeed speed experiments
Experimental considerations
  • Use of dispersion to quantify sample heterogeneities, principle of Kr upscaling
  • Saturation measurements, mass balance, Karl Fisher
  • Principle and advantages of in-situ measurements
  • Problems using crude oil: filtration, gas nucleation, asphaltenes flocculation
  • Dead volumes corrections