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E-353 - Laboratory Determination of Relative Permeabilities

5 days REE/CYDAR
Level
Proficiency
Audience
  • Reservoir engineers, petroleum engineers and experienced technicians interested in measuring relative permeability.
Purpose
  • This course provides skills for designing and interpreting lab experiments that will provide relative permeability as an input in reservoir engineering studies.
Learning Objectives
  • Upon completion of the course, participants will be able to:
  • describe the theory underlying the methods for assessing relative permeability in a lab,
  • select the most appropriate method,
  • design and interpret experiments.
Prerequisite
  • No prerequisites for this course.
Ways and means
  • Hands-on practice through real lab experiments carried out during the training.
  • CYDAR™ software is used to design and interpret the experiments and to perform additional exercises.

Basics on two-phase flow in porous media 0.5 day
  • Two-phase flow equations: definitions and notion of relative permeability.
  • Notion of capillarity, pore level mechanisms and core-scale modeling.
  • Capillary pressure curves, hysteresis, wettability.
Principle of Kr determination 0.5 day
  • Unsteady-state and steady-state methods.
  • Semi-dynamic method and Kr from centrifuge.
  • Analytic and numerical interpretations.
  • Laboratory versus reservoir conditions.
Unsteady state 2 days
  • Principle and exercises using analytical solutions (JBN, Welge, Jones-Roszelle methods).
  • Principle of numerical simulations necessary to take into account the capillary pressure.
  • Direct simulations and automatic history matching. Hands-on with CYDAR™.
  • Multistep experiments for simultaneous determination of the capillary pressure.
Steady state 1 day
  • Advantages and drawbacks. Analytical and numerical Kr determinations.
  • Hands-on practice with CYDAR™.
Centrifuge 0.5 day
  • Relative permeabilities from centrifuge experiments: analytical calculation (Hagoort), interpretation of single and multispeed speed experiments.
Experimental considerations 0.5 day
  • Use of dispersion to quantify sample heterogeneities, principle of Kr upscaling.
  • Saturation measurements, mass balance, Karl Fisher.
  • Principle and advantages of in-situ measurements.
  • Problems using crude oil: filtration, gas nucleation, asphaltenes flocculation.
  • Dead volumes corrections.