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Introduction to Refining

3 days RPC/ITR-E
Level
Discovery
Audience
  • Non-technical professionals in the oil and gas industry or related sectors interested in the oil refining business.
Purpose
  • To provide basic technical information on refining processes.
Learning Objectives
  • To learn about the main refining processes and their operating characteristics.
  • To understand the manufacturing scheme of petroleum products.
  • To understand the main constraints and trends in the refining industry.
Ways and means
  • Active participation of trainees through interactive games.

Crude oils and petroleum products 0.5 day
  • Crude oils: supply, properties, classification, yields and properties of petroleum cuts.
  • Main characteristics of commercial products, relation to product uses.
  • Trends in market structure and product characteristics. Biofuels.
Initial crude oil fractionation 0.75 day
  • Operation principle, unit flow diagram, operating conditions, energy consumption
  • Crude oil atmospheric distillation, desalting.
  • Light-ends fractionation.
  • Atmospheric residue vacuum distillation.
Catalytic reforming - Isomerization 0.25 day
  • Process fundamentals, operating conditions, catalysts.
  • Industrial units, process flow diagrams, equipment, yields, energy consumption, hydrogen production.
Hydrorefining processes - Sulfur plant 0.5 day
  • Main features of impurities removal by catalytic hydrogen treatment: example of gas oil desulfurization unit.
  • Amine washing, sulfur plant (Claus unit), treatment of tail gas from Claus units.
Conversion units 0.5 day
  • Characteristics of feeds to be cracked.
  • Overview of conversion processes by cracking of heavy feeds.
  • Conversion by means of thermal cracking: resid visbreaker, impact on heavy fuel oil production. Delayed coker.
  • Conversion by means of fluid catalytic cracking: FCC (process flow diagram, operating conditions, products disposal) and ancillary units: gasoline sweetening, alkylation, MTBE-ETBE.
  • Conversion by hydrocracking: process flow diagram, operating conditions, yields, product quality, hydrogen consumption. Adjustments to heavy feedstocks.
Manufacturing schemes of main products 0.25 day
  • Integration of the units into the manufacturing scheme.
  • Simple and complex refineries, trends.
  • Manufacturing of main products.
Base oil manufacturing 0.25 day
  • Base oil properties.
  • Purpose of the different refining treatments.