4 days RAF/HDT-E
- Engineers, senior operation personnel or technical supervisory staff interested or involved in the operation of hydrotreatment units.
- Engineers from research centers and engineering companies involved in the different aspects of the operation and process control of these units.
- This course provides a deeper understanding of the operating, monitoring and optimizing of hydrotreatment units.
- Upon completion of the course, the participants will be able to:
- grasp the essence of hydrotreatment processes,
- analyze the operation and optimization of hydrotreatment units,
- manage the hydrogen balance in relation with the hydrogen network,
- detect potential deficiencies by troubleshooting,
- assess how to meet main breakthroughs for ultra-low desulfurization requirements.
- No prerequisites for this course.
Ways and means
- Applications, teamwork, case studies and interactive workshops based on typical real situations.
- Potential use of a dynamic simulator.
Der Vortrag über dieses Thema kann auch auf Deutsch gehalten werden.
OBJECTIVES OF HYDROTREATMENT PROCESSES 0.5 day
- Impurities in petroleum cuts and products; their impact on health, environment and on other refining processes. Highly refractory compounds.
- Recent regulations and future trends: quality specifications of petroleum products and fuels in relationship with concerns mentioned above.
- Aim of the various treatments with hydrogen and integration in the refining scheme: hydropurifications of straight run cuts, stabilization or saturation of cracked cuts.
CHEMICAL REACTIONS & HYDROTREATMENT CATALYSTS 1 day
- Characteristics of the chemical reactions involved: thermodynamic and kinetic aspects, consequences on the operation of units, side reactions and optimum operating conditions to deplete their evolution, specific features of reversion reactions.
- Characteristics of the catalysts for hydropurification and for hydrogenation: effect of molybdenum, cobalt and nickel, importance of the substrate, selection criteria for a hydrotreatment specific issue. Top gradings.
- Loading of the catalyst. Internals in the reactor.
- Presulfiding procedures: role, steps and details of the different methods.
OPERATION OF A DISTILLATE HYDROTREATMENT UNIT 0.75 day
- Operating conditions and compositions of the main streams; mass balance and yields, sulfur balance, hydrogen balance and consumption.
- Significance of the operating variables and their influence on the process: mean temperatures and profile, pressures, partial pressure of hydrogen, recycle rate, quench ratio, feed flow rate and space velocity.
- Advanced process control and optimization of the process.
- Management of the hydrogen network in the refinery. Effect of feed composition and origin.
- Catalyst follow up and cycle length optimization, ageing and deactivation.
- Regeneration steps and monitoring.
- Maximizing the performances of the unit under constraints or limit conditions.
DISTURBANCES, INCIDENTS & TROUBLESHOOTING 1 day
- Causes of quality decrease and corresponding actions.
- Main automatic safety systems.
- Feed pump failure, heater failure.
- Compressor failure: fresh gas or recycle, adapted reaction and safe shutdown.
PERFORMANCE OF THE VARIOUS HYDROTREATMENT UNITS 0.5 day
- For each of the following processes, the operating parameters and the specific operating features are addressed.
- Naphtha desulfurization for catalytic reformer and isomerization feed.
- Cracked gasoline treatments, special hydrotreatments for the FCC gasoline.
- Stabilization of the pyrolysis gasoline.
- Hydroisomerization of the C4 cut out of the FCC to feed alkylation unit.
- Hydrotreatment of middle distillates: kerosene and gas-oil, LCO processing.
- Desulfurization of vacuum gasoil to FCC units.
- Residues demetallization processes.
- Hydrotreatments in lube oil manufacturing.
- Hydrogen manufacturing or enrichment processes.
SPECIFIC DEVELOPMENTS TO MEET THE ULTRA-LOW DESULFURIZATION OF GASOLINE & DIESEL FUELS 0.25 day
- High performance catalysts, grading materials, advantage of the dense loading, technology of the reactor and exchangers, operating conditions, recycle gas treatment, hydrogen purification, advanced process control.