4 days RAF/HCK-E
- Engineers, shift leaders, senior operation personnel and technical staff interested or involved in the operation of hydrocracking units.
- The technical content of this training course also makes it suitable for the staff of refineries research centers, oil companies and engineering firms involved in the different operation aspects of this process.
- To provide a comprehensive understanding of the operating, monitoring and optimizing of hydrocracking units.
- To grasp the exact role of a hydrocracking unit with regard to feeds and product's characteristics.
- To analyze the importance and impact of operating parameters on process output.
- To identify common potential incidents in the reaction section: origin, consequences, solutions and preventive measures.
Ways and means
- Applications, case studies based on typical industrial situations.
ROLE OF HYDROCRACKING IN THE OVERALL REFINING PROCESS SCHEME 0.5 day
- Description of the different units of the hydrocracking complex and interactions with other units.
- Qualitative and quantitative change in the market of petroleum products, impact of hydrocracking on distillate production and on product blending.
CHEMICAL TRANSFORMATIONS AND CATALYSTS 0.75 day
- Chemical reactions and catalyst for hydrorefining and hydrocracking: characteristics of reactions for removal of impurities, hydrogenation and decyclization. Composition of the catalyst, mechanism and impact of the operating parameters on hydrogen consumption and activity of the catalyst, exothermicity, poisons, ageing and coking.
- Monitoring of the exothermicity.
- Side reactions and additional catalysts.
ANALYSIS OF INDUSTRIAL HYDROCRACKING OPERATING CONDITIONS 2 days
- Typical process flow diagram of the reaction section and of the fractionation section.
- Standard operating conditions.
- Characteristics of the feeds
- Origin and physical properties
- Chemical composition and impurities
- Quality criteria for the operation of the process
- Characteristics of the hydrogen supply: production, purification, composition.
- Products of the unit
- Yields and mass balance, definition of conversion, hydrogen consumption
- Characteristics of the products: gas, naphtha, kerosene, gas oil
- Specific features of the residue, recycle or treatment
- Analysis of the operating conditions in the reaction section: flowrates, pressure, temperature, etc.
- Study of the operating variables: WABT, quench, hydrogen recycle ratio, hydrogen partial pressure, feed flowrate and space velocity.
- Characteristics of the equipment
- Heat exchangers, heaters, reactors, rotating machines, etc.
- Metallurgy, corrosion, analyzers.
- Fractionation section: operating conditions, compositions, quality control, tuning parameters.
OPERATION AND TROUBLESHOOTING 0.75 day
- Process control, analyzers, safety systems.
- Impact of the operating parameters on yield and product quality, tuning and optimization.
- Adjusting the operating conditions to compensate for variable feed quality and the ageing of the catalyst, monitoring the activity of the catalyst.
- Start-up and shutdown.
- Study of the industrial risks of this operation.
- Disturbances: nitrogen peak in the cracking zone, drop of feed flowrate, etc.
- Incidents: temperature run-off, compressor failure, safe shutdown.