5 days RAF/REF2
- Engineers and supervisors interested or involved in the processing of heavy cuts.
- This course provides a comprehensive knowledge of refining processes available to upgrade heavy cuts into lighter ones.
- Upon completion of the course, the participants will be able to:
- understand differences between refining conversion processes with regard to planning, operations and investment issues,
- analyze the operating parameters of these conversion processes,
- acquire the basics for operating cracking units,
- know about on the latest developments in heavy cuts processing.
- No prerequisites for this course.
Ways and means
- Case studies based on real industrial situations.
OVERVIEW OF CONVERSION PROCESSES 0.25 day
- Origins and characteristics of conversion unit feeds.
- Different types of conversion processes (principles, performance, operating ranges, economics): thermal cracking processes, catalytic cracking without hydrogen, catalytic cracking with hydrogen.
THERMAL CONVERSION PROCESSES 1.5 days
- Visbreaking and effects on quantity and stability of heavy fuel oils.
- Delayed coking: process characteristics, process flow diagram, purification of the cracked products with hydrogen and end destination.
- Management of coke drum switch and main steps of the decoking procedure, coke handling.
- Flexicoking and fluid coker: principle, integration in the refinery and power.
CATALYTIC CRACKING 1.25 days
- Main fluid catalytic cracking processes.
- Catcracking feed characteristics.
- Mechanisms of catalytic cracking reactions and mode of action of FCC catalysts.
- Yields and characteristics of FCC effluents with overview of purification treatments: propylene recovery, alkylation, ETBE and gasoline pool, LCO hydrotreatment.
- Analysis of FCC operating balances.
- Summary of operating parameters in the reaction section and in the regenerator.
- FCC alternates to treat residues (R2R, HOC, etc.).
- Maximization of C3 & C4 olefins, gasoline or cracked gasoil (LCO) production.
- Presentation of different process schemes.
DISTILLATE HYDROCRACKING 1.25 days
- Different reactions of the hydrocracking process.
- Catalysts: hydrotreating and hydrocracking; poisons and regeneration.
- Hydrocracking processes: different types, process flow diagram, operating conditions.
- Analysis of hydrocracking operating: parameters, hydrogen balance, sulfur balance.
- Associated unit: hydrogen production, sulfur recovery.
- Product yields and quality utilizations.
RESIDUE PROCESSING 0.5 day
- Overview of existing processes to upgrade vacuum residues: hydrotreatment, hydroconversion.
- Associated units.
- Refinery configurations with deasphalting unit.
LUBE BASE STOCKS MANUFACTURE 0.25 day
- Classification and required properties of base oils.
- Main lube base stocks manufacturing schemes: vacuum distillation unit, deasphalting, extraction, dewaxing, hydrofinishing.