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H<sub>2</sub>S Removal & Sulfur Recovery Processes

3 days RAF/PFCS-E
  • Engineers and supervisors involved in operating, troubleshooting, optimizing or revamping sour gas treatment and sulfur recovery facilities.
  • To deepen understanding of the operating and monitoring of sulfur recovery processes with proper HSE measures.
Learning Objectives
  • To learn about the chemistry, technologies and safety and environmental issues of hydrogen sulfide removal from refinery gas streams.
  • To analyze the operating parameters of an H2S conversion train and their impact on NOx and SOx emissions.
  • To learn about the most common deficiencies and preventive measures.
Ways and means
  • Use of a dynamic simulator for amine and Claus units to simulate operating conditions.

Overview of sulfur removal and recovery 0.25 day
  • Amine washing and sulfur recovery units role in refineries.
  • Nature, origins and compositions of the streams to be treated, ammonia content.
  • Determination of the sulfur balance for a typical refinery.
  • Environmental aspects, treatment justification.
Amine units 0.75 day
  • Chemical reaction between amines and H2S.
  • Process flow sheet and equipment review: absorption, regeneration, pumps and filtration.
  • Process control: pressures, temperatures, amine solution optimization, steam flowrate to regenerator optimization.
  • Regeneration quality: objectives, follow-up methods, and performance impacts.
  • Troubleshooting: amine solution degradation, foaming, corrosion, washing quality follow-up.
  • Safety issues.
  • Application: what you can learn from your amine analysis (routine and detailed).
Sulfur recovery units 1 day
  • Chemical reactions: required and undesired ones, thermodynamics and kinetics.
  • Process flow sheet: thermal stage, catalytic stage, sulfur recovery, tail gas incineration. Operating parameters and impact on sulfur yield.
  • Process control: H2S/SO2 ratio control, air flow rate optimization, tail gas analyzer, warming up techniques and temperature control at the converters.
  • Troubleshooting: hydrocarbons presence, sulfur behavior as per temperature, H2S degassing from sulfur product, safety.
  • Shutdown situations and consequences, safety issues, ISS.
Tail gas clean-up processes 0.75 day
  • Process flow schemes: CLAUSPOL, SCOT and SULFREEN.
  • Operating parameters and impact on process and sulfur yields.
  • Influence of the H2S/SO2 ratio.
  • Sources of usual operation troubles for each process: improper regeneration, catalyst ageing, …
  • Impact on the CLAUS unit optimization.
Sour water stripper off-gas treatment 0.25 day
  • Sour water characteristics. Ammonia content. Ammonia conversion and NOx monitoring
  • Principle, main equipment, operating parameters, water quality follow-up.