3 days RAF/PFCS-E
- Engineers and supervisors involved in operating, troubleshooting, optimizing or revamping sour gas treatment and sulfur recovery facilities.
- This course provides a deeper understanding of the operating and monitoring of sulfur recovery processes with proper HSE measures.
- Upon completion of the course, the participants will be able to:
- know about the chemistry, technologies and safety and environmental issues of hydrogen sulfide removal from refinery gas streams,
- analyze the operating parameters of an H2S conversion train and their impact on NOx and SOx emissions,
- avoid the most common deficiencies by applying preventive measures.
- No prerequisites for this course.
Ways and means
- Use of a dynamic simulator for amine and Claus units to simulate operating conditions.
OVERVIEW OF SULFUR REMOVAL & RECOVERY 0.25 day
- Amine washing and sulfur recovery units role in refineries.
- Nature, origins and compositions of the streams to be treated, ammonia content.
- Determination of the sulfur balance for a typical refinery.
- Environmental aspects, treatment justification.
AMINE UNITS 0.75 day
- Chemical reaction between amines and H2S.
- Process flow sheet and equipment review: absorption, regeneration, pumps and filtration.
- Process control: pressures, temperatures, amine solution optimization, steam flowrate to regenerator optimization.
- Regeneration quality: objectives, follow-up methods, and performance impacts.
- Troubleshooting: amine solution degradation, foaming, corrosion, washing quality follow-up.
- Safety issues.
- Application: what you can learn from your amine analysis (routine and detailed).
SULFUR RECOVERY UNITS 1 day
- Chemical reactions: required and undesired ones, thermodynamics and kinetics.
- Process flow sheet: thermal stage, catalytic stage, sulfur recovery, tail gas incineration. Operating parameters and impact on sulfur yield.
- Process control: H2S/SO2 ratio control, air flow rate optimization, tail gas analyzer, warming up techniques and temperature control at the converters.
- Troubleshooting: hydrocarbons presence, sulfur behavior as per temperature, H2S degassing from sulfur product, safety.
- Shutdown situations and consequences, safety issues, ISS.
TAIL GAS CLEAN-UP PROCESSES 0.75 day
- Process flow schemes: CLAUSPOL, SCOT and SULFREEN.
- Operating parameters and impact on process and sulfur yields.
- Influence of the H2S/SO2 ratio.
- Sources of usual operation troubles for each process: improper regeneration, catalyst ageing, …
- Impact on the CLAUS unit optimization.
SOUR WATER STRIPPER OFF-GAS TREATMENT 0.25 day
- Sour water characteristics. Ammonia content. Ammonia conversion and NOx monitoring.
- Principle, main equipment, operating parameters, water quality follow-up.