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Furnaces: Safe Operation & Optimization

4 days EMT/FURNSOO
Level
Proficiency
Audience
  • Operators, panel operators, supervisors and plant managers of refining, chemical and petrochemical plants, involved in furnace operation.
  • Engineers and supervisors concerned with various safety, optimization and operating issues of furnaces.
Purpose
  • To provide in-depth knowledge of furnace operation in the petroleum and petrochemical industries, and inculcateawareness of the main safety and reliability constraints.
Learning Objectives
  • To describe industrial combustion phenomena and calculate the air/fuel ratio for optimum combustion.
  • To identify bad-quality combustion from flue gas analysis and flame study, and implement corrective steps.
  • To list and apply the main steps of a furnace start-up procedure.
  • To recognize the main operating and material constraints for an optimal, safe and reliable furnace operation.
Ways and means
  • Use of a dynamic simulator to show the impact of operating conditions on thermal performance and furnace operation.
  • Ample use of case studies and exercises based on industry situations.
  • Special emphasis on safety issues and abnormal situations that can lead to incidents.
  • The course content can be tailored to different types of furnaces and include specificities linked to some processing units such as the steam reformer or steam cracker.

Furnace construction and operating conditions 0.5 day
  • Different types of furnace. Operating conditions.
  • Scope and limitations for improving furnace efficiency.
  • Construction of heat exchange areas and refractory materials: tube bundle arrangement, insulation, type of materials used and operating limits.
Combustion - Burners 1.5 days
  • Combustion conditions: liquid and gas fuel characteristics, liquid spray.
  • Burners: fuel and air supply and mixture. Conventional and low NOx burners operation.
  • Combustion quality: analysis of the oxygen and the unburned material in the flue gases, control of combustion air flow rate and air/fuel ratio.
  • Combustion safety: flame detection, control and safety devices.
  • Air and flue gas circulation: natural draft, forced draft, pressure differential control, automatic safety devices. Damper or forced draft fan role. Impact of furnace positive pressure.
  • Application:
  • Natural and forced draft pressure profile drawing. Review of draft constraints.
  • Different types of burners and spraying systems.
Heat transfer and furnace operation 2 days
  • Heat transfer to the tube coil: control parameters.
  • Heat control: process fluid outlet temperature, fuel flowrate control.
  • Most important furnace temperature and constraints: skin temperature, bridgewall temperature, limits and risk of overcoming
  • Application: furnace temperature profile and heat recovery distribution as a function of fuel burned and combustion air excess.
  • On-stream furnace operations: monitoring of combustion and heating. Modifying operating conditions. Analysis of disturbances. Key points for safe operation, operating conditions control and follow-up.
  • Start-up and shutdown: preparation, safe ignition procedures, ignition after a short shutdown, normal shutdown, emergency shutdown.
  • Incidents: explosive atmosphere in the radiant section, tube rupture, unbalancing of the heat, etc.
  • Diagnostic facilities; troubleshooting.
  • Application:
  • Case study of furnaces incidents.
  • Start-up procedure study.
Furnace operation 1.5 days
  • On-stream furnace operations: monitoring of combustion and heating. Modifying operating conditions. Analysis of disturbances. Key points for safe operation, operating conditions control and follow-up.
  • Start-up and shutdown: preparation, safe ignition procedures, ignition after a short shutdown, normal shutdown, emergency shutdown.
  • Incidents: explosive atmosphere in the radiation zone, tube rupture, unbalancing of the heat, etc.
  • Diagnostic facilities; troubleshooting.
  • Application:
  • Case study of furnaces incidents.
  • Start-up procedure study.