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Fluid Catalytic Cracking Operation

5 days RAF/FCCSS-E
Level
Proficiency
Audience
  • Engineers and technical staff interested or involved in designing or operating an FCC unit.
Purpose
  • To provide a comprehensive understanding of operating, monitoring and optimizing the catalytic section of the FCC process.
Learning Objectives
  • To understand the exact role and process of an FCC unit.
  • To analyze the importance and impact of operating parameters on product quality.
  • To learn about main potential incidents, their origin, consequences on safety, health and the environment, and the most common preventive measures.
Ways and means
  • Applications, case studies based on typical industrial situations.

OVERVIEW OF THE FCC PROCESS 0.25 day
  • Aim of the fluid catalytic cracking unit and its place in the refining scheme.
  • Characteristics of the feeds, impact on the process; incentive for conversion of heavy cuts.
  • Mass balance, characteristics of the products and related treatments.
PLANT TYPICAL BALANCES 0.75 day
  • Interpretation of the operating parameters:
  • Heat balance and catalyst flow rate
  • Cracking conditions: thermal and catalytic severity, impact on operation and products
  • Pressure balance, fluidization and catalyst circulation; ∆P of slide valve and safety
  • Energy balance: heat recovery in the flue gas line and in the bottom pump-around.
FCC OPERATING PARAMETERS IN REACTION SECTION 2 days
  • The following parameters:
  • different modes of changing the catalyst circulation
  • control of the cracking temperature
  • effect of the feed temperature, flowrate and chemical composition
  • impact of acceleration or stripping steam
  • pressure monitoring
  • are investigated, as well as their effect on balances, Δcoke, regenerator temperature and yields.
CATALYST MONITORING 0.5 day
  • Catalytic cracking reactions and resulting products.
  • Catalyst structure and catalyst mode of action.
  • Catalyst additives: CO promoter, metals scavengers, sulfur trap.
OPERATION AND OPTIMIZATION 0.5 day
  • Different operating situations are analyzed to illustrate: optimization of LCO production; maximization of heavy feed processing under constraint of air flow rate limitation.
  • Modification of the process for maximization of C3 & C4 olefins production, or maximization of gasoline
INCIDENTS AND TROUBLESHOOTING 1 day
  • Incidents of heat balance: coke build up, afterburning, lack of coke, etc.
  • Incidents of pressure balance: low pressure drop, reverse flow, failure of the wet gas compressor.
  • Incidents on the energy recovery circuits: loss of boiler level, loss of circulation in the bottom pumparound, etc.
  • Main interlock configurations.