5 days RPC/UPGRADE
- Engineers and staff from upstream and downstream sectors interested or involved in heavy crude upgrading projects or in conversion processes.
- To provide broad technical information on heavy crude upgrading and conversion processes.
- To learn about various extra heavy crude oils and heavy cuts for processing.
- To understand the role of different units in a heavy crude upgrading chain.
- To acquire a good understanding of the operation of these units and the specific features related to extra heavy crude oil processing.
Crude oil properties 0.5 day
- Main physical and chemical properties and standard tests of crude oils.
- Extra heavy crude properties in contrast to classical crude oils.
Upgrader principles and objectives 0.5 day
- Production, fluidification and transportation of extra heavy crude oils. Different ways to upgrade heavy crude oils. Overview of an upgrader, role and purposes of the different processes.
Atmospheric and vacuum distillation 0.75 day
- Upgrader distillation units: principles of distillation, capacity, process flowsheets.
- Atmospheric and vacuum distillation unit: operating conditions, material balance, energy consumption and heat recovery, tower and equipment characteristics.
- Crude oil desalting unit: purpose, operating conditions, specific solutions to process heavy crude oils. Corrosion and corrosion prevention in atmospheric and vacuum distillation units.
Upgrader hydrotreatments to process naphtha and distillate 0.5 day
- Origin of feeds and related characteristics.
- Hydrotreatment chemical reactions and hydrogen consumption.
- Hydrotreatment catalysts: composition, role and mode of action.
- Hydrotreatment processes: process flow diagram, operating conditions, products characteristics.
Upgrader hydrocracker (HCK) or mild hydrocracker (MHC) 0.5 day
- Main methods of cracking heavy cuts: thermal, catalytic and hydrocracking processes.
- Specific hydrocracking chemical reactions: exothermicity, hydrogen consumption.
- Hydrocracking catalysts: composition, main properties and poisons.
- Mild hydrocracker (MHC) unit: process flow diagram, feed and products, material balance.
Hydrogen manufacturing plants 0.5 day
- Different processes for hydrogen production (SMR and POX).
- Steam methane reforming (SMR): material balance, feed and products, preliminary desulfurization and sulfur trap, chemical reactions, catalysts, process scheme, operating conditions.
- Steam reforming furnace and steam production. CO conversion (operating conditions, catalyst). Hydrogen purification (principle of a PSA unit, flow diagram and performances).
- Gasification processes (POX, partial oxidation).
- Feeds: heavy cuts, residues, …
- Gasification process principle, material balance, simplified process flow sheet and operating conditions. Soot trapping and ashe management. Gas washing and purification, CO conversion.
Thermal conversion units: visbreaking and delayed coking 1 day
- Heavy cuts thermal conversion processes.
- Visbreaking: feed and products, product properties, process flow diagram, operating conditions; specific equipment: furnace, soaker, separation section, stability of heavy cracked fuel oils.
- Delayed coking
- General description of coking processes: chemical reactions, process performances
- Delayed coking process description: feed and products, material balance, product properties; process flow diagram, operating conditions; technology of furnace and coke drums; coke types and users; operation of a delayed coking unit: coking cycle, decoking cycle and switch management, coke handling.
- Others coking processes: fluid coking, flexicoking.
- Integration of flexicoking units in upgrading schemes of heavy crudes.
H2S removal and sulfur recovery process 0.25 day
- Overview of sulfur removal and recovery.
- Amine units: process flow scheme and operating conditions, safety issues.
- Sulfur recovery units: process principle, chemical reactions, thermal stage, catalytic stages, sulfur recovery, tail gas incineration; process scheme, operating conditions, sulfur yield.
- Tail gas treatment: Sulfreen, Clauspol, SCOT; principles and operating conditions.
Other conversion processes 0.5 day
- Deasphalting units: vacuum residues structure and properties; deasphalting principles: different deasphalting solvents, overall flow sheet, operating conditions; integration of deasphating units in conversion schemes.
- Residue hydroconversion processes: examples of feed properties. Metals in catalytic hydroconversion processes, fixed bed technologies; ebulliated bed technologies.