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Extra Heavy Crude Oil Upgrading

5 days RPC/UPGRADE
Level
Proficiency
Audience
  • Engineers and staff from upstream and downstream sectors interested or involved in heavy crude upgrading projects or in conversion processes.
Purpose
  • This course provides a broad technical information on heavy crude upgrading and conversion processes.
Learning Objectives
  • Upon completion of the course, the participants will be able to:
  • know about various extra heavy crude oils and heavy cuts for processing,
  • understand the role of different units in a heavy crude upgrading plant,
  • acquire a good understanding of the operation of these units and the specific features related to extra heavy crude oil processing.
Prerequisite
  • No prerequisites for this course.

CRUDE OIL PROPERTIES 0.5 day
  • Main physical and chemical properties and standard tests of crude oils.
  • Extra heavy crude properties in contrast to classical crude oils.
UPGRADER PRINCIPLES & OBJECTIVES 0.5 day
  • Production, fluidification and transportation of extra heavy crude oils. Different ways to upgrade heavy crude oils. Overview of an upgrader, role and purposes of the different processes.
ATMOSPHERIC & VACUUM DISTILLATION 0.75 day
  • Upgrader distillation units: principles of distillation, capacity, process flowsheets.
  • Atmospheric and vacuum distillation unit: operating conditions, material balance, energy consumption and heat recovery, tower and equipment characteristics.
  • Crude oil desalting unit: purpose, operating conditions, specific solutions to process heavy crude oils. Corrosion and corrosion prevention in atmospheric and vacuum distillation units.
THERMAL CONVERSION UNITS: VISBREAKING & DELAYED COKING 1 day
  • Heavy cuts thermal conversion processes.
  • Visbreaking: feed and products, product properties, process flow diagram, operating conditions; specific equipment: furnace, soaker, separation section, stability of heavy cracked fuel oils.
  • Delayed coking:
  • General description of coking processes: chemical reactions, process performances.
  • Delayed coking process description: feed and products, material balance, product properties; process flow diagram, operating conditions; technology of furnace and coke drums; coke types and users; operation of a delayed coking unit: coking cycle, decoking cycle and switch management, coke handling.
  • Others coking processes: fluid coking, flexicoking.
  • Integration of flexicoking units in upgrading schemes of heavy crudes.
UPGRADER HYDROTREATMENTS TO PROCESS NAPHTHA & DISTILLATE 0.5 day
  • Origin of feeds and related characteristics.
  • Hydrotreatment chemical reactions and hydrogen consumption.
  • Hydrotreatment catalysts: composition, role and mode of action.
  • Hydrotreatment processes: process flow diagram, operating conditions, products characteristics.
UPGRADER HYDROCRACKER (HCK) OR MILD HYDROCRACKER (MHC) 0.5 day
  • Main methods of cracking heavy cuts: thermal, catalytic and hydrocracking processes.
  • Specific hydrocracking chemical reactions: exothermicity, hydrogen consumption.
  • Hydrocracking catalysts: composition, main properties and poisons.
  • Mild hydrocracker (MHC) unit: process flow diagram, feed and products, material balance.
HYDROGEN MANUFACTURING PLANTS 0.5 day
  • Different processes for hydrogen production (SMR and POX).
  • Steam methane reforming (SMR): material balance, feed and products, preliminary desulfurization and sulfur trap, chemical reactions, catalysts, process scheme, operating conditions.
  • Steam reforming furnace and steam production. CO conversion (operating conditions, catalyst). Hydrogen purification (principle of a PSA unit, flow diagram and performances).
  • Gasification processes (POX, partial oxidation).
  • Feeds: heavy cuts, residues, …
  • Gasification process principle, material balance, simplified process flow sheet and operating conditions. Soot trapping and ash management. Gas washing and purification, CO conversion.
H2S REMOVAL & SULFUR RECOVERY PROCESS 0.25 day
  • Overview of sulfur removal and recovery.
  • Amine units: process flow scheme and operating conditions, safety issues.
  • Sulfur recovery units: process principle, chemical reactions, thermal stage, catalytic stages, sulfur recovery, tail gas incineration; process scheme, operating conditions, sulfur yield.
  • Tail gas treatment: Sulfreen, Clauspol, SCOT; principles and operating conditions.
OTHER CONVERSION PROCESSES 0.5 day
  • Deasphalting units: vacuum residues structure and properties; deasphalting principles: different deasphalting solvents, overall flow sheet, operating conditions; integration of deasphating units in conversion schemes.
  • Residue hydroconversion processes: examples of feed properties. Metals in catalytic hydroconversion processes, fixed bed technologies; ebullated bed technologies.