5 days RPC/UPGRADE
- Engineers and staff from upstream and downstream sectors interested or involved in heavy crude upgrading projects or in conversion processes.
- This course provides a broad technical information on heavy crude upgrading and conversion processes.
- Upon completion of the course, the participants will be able to:
- know about various extra heavy crude oils and heavy cuts for processing,
- understand the role of different units in a heavy crude upgrading plant,
- acquire a good understanding of the operation of these units and the specific features related to extra heavy crude oil processing.
- No prerequisites for this course.
CRUDE OIL PROPERTIES 0.5 day
- Main physical and chemical properties and standard tests of crude oils.
- Extra heavy crude properties in contrast to classical crude oils.
UPGRADER PRINCIPLES & OBJECTIVES 0.5 day
- Production, fluidification and transportation of extra heavy crude oils. Different ways to upgrade heavy crude oils. Overview of an upgrader, role and purposes of the different processes.
ATMOSPHERIC & VACUUM DISTILLATION 0.75 day
- Upgrader distillation units: principles of distillation, capacity, process flowsheets.
- Atmospheric and vacuum distillation unit: operating conditions, material balance, energy consumption and heat recovery, tower and equipment characteristics.
- Crude oil desalting unit: purpose, operating conditions, specific solutions to process heavy crude oils. Corrosion and corrosion prevention in atmospheric and vacuum distillation units.
THERMAL CONVERSION UNITS: VISBREAKING & DELAYED COKING 1 day
- Heavy cuts thermal conversion processes.
- Visbreaking: feed and products, product properties, process flow diagram, operating conditions; specific equipment: furnace, soaker, separation section, stability of heavy cracked fuel oils.
- Delayed coking:
- General description of coking processes: chemical reactions, process performances.
- Delayed coking process description: feed and products, material balance, product properties; process flow diagram, operating conditions; technology of furnace and coke drums; coke types and users; operation of a delayed coking unit: coking cycle, decoking cycle and switch management, coke handling.
- Others coking processes: fluid coking, flexicoking.
- Integration of flexicoking units in upgrading schemes of heavy crudes.
UPGRADER HYDROTREATMENTS TO PROCESS NAPHTHA & DISTILLATE 0.5 day
- Origin of feeds and related characteristics.
- Hydrotreatment chemical reactions and hydrogen consumption.
- Hydrotreatment catalysts: composition, role and mode of action.
- Hydrotreatment processes: process flow diagram, operating conditions, products characteristics.
UPGRADER HYDROCRACKER (HCK) OR MILD HYDROCRACKER (MHC) 0.5 day
- Main methods of cracking heavy cuts: thermal, catalytic and hydrocracking processes.
- Specific hydrocracking chemical reactions: exothermicity, hydrogen consumption.
- Hydrocracking catalysts: composition, main properties and poisons.
- Mild hydrocracker (MHC) unit: process flow diagram, feed and products, material balance.
HYDROGEN MANUFACTURING PLANTS 0.5 day
- Different processes for hydrogen production (SMR and POX).
- Steam methane reforming (SMR): material balance, feed and products, preliminary desulfurization and sulfur trap, chemical reactions, catalysts, process scheme, operating conditions.
- Steam reforming furnace and steam production. CO conversion (operating conditions, catalyst). Hydrogen purification (principle of a PSA unit, flow diagram and performances).
- Gasification processes (POX, partial oxidation).
- Feeds: heavy cuts, residues, …
- Gasification process principle, material balance, simplified process flow sheet and operating conditions. Soot trapping and ash management. Gas washing and purification, CO conversion.
H2S REMOVAL & SULFUR RECOVERY PROCESS 0.25 day
- Overview of sulfur removal and recovery.
- Amine units: process flow scheme and operating conditions, safety issues.
- Sulfur recovery units: process principle, chemical reactions, thermal stage, catalytic stages, sulfur recovery, tail gas incineration; process scheme, operating conditions, sulfur yield.
- Tail gas treatment: Sulfreen, Clauspol, SCOT; principles and operating conditions.
OTHER CONVERSION PROCESSES 0.5 day
- Deasphalting units: vacuum residues structure and properties; deasphalting principles: different deasphalting solvents, overall flow sheet, operating conditions; integration of deasphating units in conversion schemes.
- Residue hydroconversion processes: examples of feed properties. Metals in catalytic hydroconversion processes, fixed bed technologies; ebullated bed technologies.