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Engine Technology - Physical & Dimensional Analysis

3 days MOT/TECMOT-E
Audience
  • Engineers and technical staff from the engine development and testing, needing an accurate understanding of physics fundamentals and the ways leading to engine components design.
Purpose
  • To give participants, who already work in the engine field, an overall view on the technologies used for the different engine parts (spark ignition and Diesel), as well as on the parts design and dimensioning processes.
Learning Objectives
  • To know each part functions.
  • To understand how a part shape affects the surrounding area.
  • To understand the reasons for choosing a particular material and manufacturing process.
  • To know the basic physical laws (mechanics, thermics, lubrication, ...) to understand the design of the engine parts.
  • To know the order of magnitude of the stresses, pressures, flows, temperatures in the engine parts and fluids.
Prerequisite
  • IC engine fundamentals.
Ways and means
  • Interactive talks with dimensioning simple simulations and knowledge tests.

Physical phenomena in engines 0.75 day
  • Engine general architecture. Terminology used. Main strengths in an engine.
  • Physics basic knowledge. Mechanics (pressure, inertia strength, Young's modulus). Thermics (expansion, thermal transfers, ...). Vibrations (resonance). Fluid mechanics (pressure losses, effective section). Lubrication rates (Stribeck curve).
  • Combustion. Gasoline and Diesel combustion physics. Basic elements defining the phenomenon (pressure, temperatures, Carnot cycle). Volumetric efficiency basic knowledge (lift law, tightness/aerodynamics, acoustic inlet, ...) on performances. Combustion chamber location.
Metals properties and processing 0.25 day
  • Presentation of the main alloy steel groups used in engines (steels, cast irons, aluminum alloy steels). Advantages/drawbacks.
  • Presentation of the main manufacturing types (forging plant, foundry).
Combustion impact on parts in contact with the flame front 0.5 day
  • Cylinder head: material. Stresses caused by temperature (cracking,...), by pressure (torque, tightness, cylinder head gasket...). Encumbrance. Analysis of the different architectures.
  • Piston: material, thermo-mechanical stresses, bowl cracking, expansion, ring sticking, noise, critical speed.
  • Liner: material. Guiding role. Piston/liner contact. Lubrication rate. Grooving. Seizing.
How stresses are transmitted to elements in motion 0.75 day
  • Translational motion
  • Piston pin and conrod head pre-dimensioning.
  • Why a viper head?
  • Conrod: how choosing the correct length (rod-to-stroke ratio)?
  • Deterioration types (fatigue, seizing, buckling).
  • Rotating motion
  • Conrod-crankshaft link: bushings (material, deterioration and lubrication modes), big end types.
  • Crankshaft: manufacturing process (forged, moulded, assembled).
  • Solutions to reduce the impact of acyclisms on the powertrain (PWT): crankshaft pulley, flexible flywheel, dual mass flywheel.
  • Crank pin position. Basic knowledge on crankshaft balancing.
  • Lubrication holes positions.
Drive - timing - ancilliaries, use of the crankshaft energy 0.25 day
  • Different drive types technologies (chain, belt, gear system).
  • Timing design and technology (camshaft, valves, cam followers/finger followers/cam on tappet).
  • Belt installation (tight side, slack side, pulleys).
Guiding - cooling - lubrication 0.5 day
  • Fixing the crankshaft in the crankcase. Choosing the architecture (bearing caps, bearing caps cluster, bedplate).
  • Crankcase upper half: dimensioning (cylinder spacing, conrod swept volume, cylinder block deck, ...). Choosing the material according to the stresses (cost, load, vibration, mechanical performance). Analysing different architectures (example: cast iron crankcase with skirt + aluminum lower crankcase).
  • Exhaust manifold: mechanical performances (vibratory and thermo-mechanical aspects), material.
  • Lubrication: lubrication circuit, blow-by circuit. Oil pump. Filtration.
  • Cooling: cooling circuit, water pump, heat exchangers.