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Diesel Engines Performances - Level 2

5 days MOT/PMD2-E
Level
Advanced
Audience
  • Engineers and technical staff working on performances tuning of road truck engines.
Purpose
  • To improve participants' knowledge in their job stream (performances development) and improve their knowledge on the related fields (pollution, fuels, lubricants, engine design, evolution of injection and supercharging technologies).
Learning Objectives
  • To take in account the environmental situation that explains the regulations related to exhaust emissions.
  • To better understand combustion and diesel injection physics, the efficiency and performances improvement parameters.
  • To better know the fuel and lubricant specifications and impacts on the engine‚Äôs operation.
  • To be able to size a turbocharger and to match it to an engine.
  • To be able to choose a depollution strategy and to select an after-treatment system.
  • To understand the operating principles and the strategies associated to the engine management.
Prerequisite
  • MOT/PMD1-E training.
Ways and means
  • MOT/PMD1-E + MOT/PMD2-E give a full overview of the field of Diesel truck engines, through interactive talks and numerical exercises.

Atmospheric pollution and regulations 0.25 day
  • Atmospheric pollution, main impacts on health, share of transports.
  • Pollutants emitted by engines (regulated and non regulated). Regulations related to the vehicles exhaust emissions.
Efficiency and performances 0.25 day
  • Global efficiency, combustion efficiency, thermo-dynamic efficiency, cycle type efficiency, mechanical efficiency.
  • Thermal balance.
  • Loading and volumetric efficiency.
Lubricant 0.5 day
  • Engine oils SAE viscosity classification. Diesel engine oils EPI and ACEA classifications.
  • Problems of the diesel and engine and the lubrication: lubricant behavior with the soot (dispersion); fuel sulfur content (TNB and ashes content); cylinder resurfacing; lubricant compatibility with after-treatment systems (DPF).
  • Oil filtration. Follow-up of in-service lubricants.
Diesel fuel 0.5 day
  • Production in refineries, manufacturing constraints in Europe and in the US.
  • Characteristics related to the use on engine: cetane, cold engine operability, distillation, viscosity, sulfur content.
  • Specifications: Fuel diesel in Europe, fuel Diesel in US, fuel for building machines, for boats.
Diesel combustion and injection 1.5 days
  • Pollutants formation: HC, CO, NOx, particles, depending on temperature and the air-fuel ratio in the combustion chamber.
  • Fuel jet formation and characterization in the chamber. Role of swirl.
  • Influence of engine parameters on emissions, consumption, noise: load, injection advance, exhaust gas recirculation (internal, external, cooling), swirl, injection pressure. Examples of some test results interpretation.
  • Diesel injection system operating: injectors-pumps, solenoid common-rail, piezo, with pressure amplification.
  • Information about variable timing systems interest and technology.
After-treatment 0.5 day
  • Oxidation catalysts. Diesel particulates filter (DPF).
  • Selective reduction Catalyst (SCR) using urea. Other systems.
Supercharging 1.5 days
  • Turbochargers operating principle: compression and expansion energies, geometric characteristics, flow adjustment, cooling.
  • Compressor pressure-flow map and operating limits (pumping, speed, efficiency).
  • Turbine characteristics, saturation.
  • Technologies of the turbocharger different parts: materials, lubrication, reliability aspects.
  • Twin-scroll, variable geometry, dual supercharging turbochargers.
  • Matching a turbocharger to an engine: choice of the compressor and of the turbine depending on the engine characteristics and performances.
  • Participants will carry out a practical exercise of turbocharger adaptation.