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Cogeneration - Combined Cycles - Waste Heat Recovery

  • Graduate engineers and technicians whose activities are related to the design and/or operation of such installations: engineers and technicians from engineering companies, technical support for operations, operation personnel (shift operators, panel operators, site operators), HSE specialists, personnel from insurance companies, etc.
  • To provide comprehensive and applied knowledge of cogeneration units in existing plants or new projects.
Learning Objectives
  • To describe the process conditions related to the combined production of thermal and mechanical energy.
  • To assess and follow up on the performance of the different equipment of a cogeneration unit.
  • To analyze the operating conditions of a cogeneration cycle.
Ways and means
  • Several practical applications related to actual industrial cases.

Cogeneration: different cycles 0.5 day
  • Operating principle of cogeneration and combined cycles - Typical schemes.
  • Main parts of the different cycles:
  • boiler, steam turbine (back-pressure or condensation)
  • gas turbine, waste heat recovery boiler
  • Mechanical and thermal energy split.
Cogeneration: production of steam 0.75 day
  • Boiler Feed Water (BFW) preparation: required quality for BFW, description of the physical and chemical required treatments.
  • Description of conventional boilers and waste heat boilers: water circuit, steam circuit, fuel circuits.
  • Operating conditions – Fuel consumption per ton of produced steam, depending on boiler type and operating conditions.
  • Main process control loops: boiler feed water, pressure and temperature of produced steam, combustion, flue gas circulation draft.
  • Combustion monitoring, analyzers, aim and meaning of each measured parameter.
  • Safety devices.
Cogeneration: steam end-uses 0.75 day
  • Steam as a heating medium and mechanical driving fluid.
  • Steam pressure level requirements, depending on the end-use. Steam network balancing.
  • Steam as a heating medium: conditions for its distribution and efficient utilization.
  • Steam turbines: operating principle, expansion work and efficiency, and produced energy.
  • Static expansion: expanded steam characteristics, steam de-superheating.
Cogeneration: gas turbines and waste heat recovery 1 day
  • Operating principle - Operating conditions.
  • Energy balance and energy performances of each elementary operation: compression, combustion and expansion. Energy performances and efficiency.
  • Efficiency enhancement, by heat recovery from exhaust gases (air preheater, waste heat recovery boiler).
  • Different operating modes (simple waste heat recovery, post-combustion, separate boiler) and performances.