5 days RAF/CAREF-E
- Engineers, senior operations personnel or technical supervisory staff interested or involved in the operation, optimization and monitoring of hydrogen and aromatics production units.
- Engineers from research centers and engineering companies involved in the different aspects of the operation and process control of these processes.
- This course provides a thorough technical understanding of semi-regenerative or continuous regenerative catalytic reforming processes, for refining and petrochemicals.
- Upon completion of the course, the participants will be able to:
- assess the influence of operating parameters on a unit performance,
- optimize the process to achieve the targeted yield in BTX, from the design to the operation,
- grasp the essence of catalyst regeneration,
- detect potential deficiencies by troubleshooting,
- acquire the best practices for unit start-up, normal operation and shutdown.
- No prerequisites for this course.
Ways and means
- Applications, teamwork, case studies and interactive workshops based on typical real situations.
Der Vortrag über dieses Thema kann auch auf Deutsch gehalten werden.
THE CATALYTIC REFORMER WITHIN THE REFINERY SCHEME 0.5 day
- Quality specifications of gasolines; reformulated gasoline and future trends.
- Octane improving processes, integration within the refining processes.
- Needs in hydrogen. Aromatic complex overview, need for benzene, toluene and xylenes.
- Influence of feedstocks origins and characteristics on the performances of the units: IBP, FBP, composition (N,A, etc.), physical properties, impurities content.
- Current yields and properties of the reformate in relation with severity.
OPERATING PARAMETERS OF A CATALYTIC REFORMER 1 day
- Process flow diagrams and operating parameters of a catalytic reforming unit: semi-regenerative and continuous regenerative. Main control loops.
- Material balance. Energy consumption.
- Semi-regenerative processes:
- Operating variables: WABT, WAIT, H2/HC ratio, flow rates, water and chlorine injection, recycle gas and hydrogen rich gas characteristics, flash drum conditions.
- Main equipment and metallurgy: features of reactors, heat exchangers and furnace technology, corrosion issues.
- Low pressure technology: continuous regenerative processes.
- Low pressure equipment, recontacting section, catalyst circulation: lifts, ∆P control, seal legs, nitrogen loops for regeneration, etc.
- Analyzers and process control.
CATALYTIC REFORMING REACTIONS & CATALYSTS 1 day
- Review of the characteristics of all the chemical reactions: thermodynamics and kinetics.
- Influence of the operating parameters on the production of aromatics, hydrogen, octane number, and other yields. Consequences for semi-regenerative and continuous regenerative processes.
- Catalyst properties: role of the acidic and metallic functions, of the support, of the different promotors and their impact on chemical reactions and yields. Water/chlorine balance and management.
- Catalyst composition and selectivity, poisons and ageing factors.
- Catalyst activity follow up and cycle length prediction for semi-regenerative units.
- Catalyst regeneration. Role of each step for an optimal activity. Operating parameters for CCR regeneration loops.
OPERATION & OPTIMIZATION FOR CATALYTIC REFORMING 1 day
- Unit operation: monitoring the operating variables and optimization, for semi-regenerative and regenerative units. Operation case studies.
- Flexibility of the continuous process. Performance follow-up.
- Maximizing the performances of the unit under constraints or limit conditions.
- Main steps for start-up and shutdown.
TROUBLESHOOTING FOR CATALYTIC REFORMING 0.5 day
- RON or aromatic content decrease: causes, diagnostic and remedies.
- Moisture in the feed, sulfur peak, chlorine peak: diagnosis and remedies.
- Recycle or separation problems, recycle gas analysis.
- Reactor temperature run-off.
- Specific troubles of CCR units: catalyst circulation, regeneration loops, chilling system, nitrogen lift pollution.
- CCR operation with catalyst regeneration problems.
FROM A REFINING TOOL TO A PETROCHEMICAL TOOL 1 day
- Outlets and main use of BX (Benzene, Xylenes), ethylbenzene.
- Technical key points to manage with: catalytical, operating conditions in order to adapt the catalytic reforming unit.
- Basic scheme to upgrade benzene and paraxylene.
- Benzene recovery unit: implementation of an extractive distillation section.
- Implementation of an aromatic loop: addition of an isomerization section to optimize the paraxylene recovery unit.
- Operating conditions for a typical arrangement. Main associated key steps during start-up and shutdown. Main operating variables and parameters.