5 days RAF/CATAL-E
- Engineers and managers in the operations, process development or technical departments of refineries.
- Project engineers, process engineers or technical assistance and commissioning personnel in engineering or licensing and catalyst suppliers.
- To deepen understanding of catalysts: their preparation, performance control, troubleshooting during operation, unit start-up, shutdown and regeneration.
- To grasp the role and the basic mechanism of a catalyst.
- To assess the link between preparation and catalytic properties.
- To understand the issues related to industrial use (start-up, shutdown, regeneration, etc.).
- To analyze the influence of operating parameters on catalytic selectivity and stability,
- To learn the methods for performance monitoring.
- It is recommended that participants be familiar with the contents of the “Refining Processes and Petroleum Products” course (refer to the corresponding training session) in order to benefit fully from this course.
Ways and means
- Active participation of trainees through interactive exercises to grasp the key points of the course.
- A summary per unit is built to highlight key issues.
CHARACTERISTICS AND PROPERTIES OF INDUSTRIAL CATALYSTS 1.25 days
- Main types of catalytic processes and related catalyst markets in the refining and heavy petrochemical industries.
- Main features of catalysis
- Thermodynamics in a chemical reaction. Kinetics in heterogeneous catalysis.
- Quality requirements for an industrial catalyst, characterization of its properties.
- Processes for catalyst synthesis and industrial production of catalysts.
OPERATION AND PERFORMANCE CONTROL OF INDUSTRIAL CATALYSTS 3.25 days
- The following items are presented for each refining unit: process and chemical reaction characteristics, selection and developments of catalytic formula, catalyst implementation, process flow diagram; process performances and catalyst monitoring. The specific features for the corresponding type of catalyst are emphasized.
- Catalytic reforming catalysts
- Precautions for start-up, monitoring and maintaining catalyst activity, incidents. Regeneration steps.
- Catalytic formulas for the regenerative process.
- Solution for benzene removal.
- Isomerization catalysts
- Different types of catalysts and process arrangement. Impact on the resulting octane number.
- Influence of poisons on the catalytic activity and operational constraints linked to the type of catalyst.
- Catalytic cracking catalysts
- Zeolite structure and design for yield optimization.
- Analysis of catalyst ageing.
- Improvements of LCO and propylene yields.
- Improvements in catalyst regeneration. Metal passivation and solutions for Vanadium effects.
- Additives for emission reduction; adaptation for residue treatment.
- C3/C4 Alkylation catalysts
- Mechanisms of liquid homogeneous HF and H2SO4 catalysis.
- Process performance and particular constraints.
- Hydrotreatment and hydrocracking catalysts
- Active phase structure, sulfiding at start-up.
- Specific issues in treating unsaturated cuts from coker, visbreaker and FCC.
- Evolution of catalytic formulas and processes for heavy cuts and residue hydrotreatment.
- Selective hydrogenation and hydrotreatment of FCC gasolines minimizing octane loss.
- Adaptation of catalytic formulas for heavy feedstock hydrocracking.
- Catalysts for Claus converter and tail gas treatment
- Claus catalysts. Impact of sulfur deposition and temperature on conversion.
- COS and CS2 hydrolysis. Deactivation and regeneration.
- Adaptation to tail gas treatment processes.
IMPLEMENTATION AND LIFE CYCLE OF CATALYSTS 0.5 day
- Precautions in the transport and the manipulation of catalysts.
- Follow-up of performances, from the start-up to the regeneration; metals recovery.