4 days RAF/ALKY-E
- Engineers, shift leaders and technical staff interested or involved in the operation of alkylation units.
- The technical content of this training course also makes it suitable for the staff of refineries, research centers, oil companies and engineering firms involved in the different aspects of the operation of the alkylation unit.
- This course provides a deeper understanding of alkylation processes: operation, monitoring and optimization.
- Upon completion of the course, the participants will be able to:
- grasp the exact role of an alkylation unit within the refining scheme,
- analyze the importance and impact of operating parameters on process optimization,
- know about main potential incidents, their origin, consequences and apply preventive measures,
- monitor corrosion problems.
- No prerequisites for this course.
Ways and means
- Applications, case studies based on typical industrial situations.
ALKYLATION PRINCIPLES 0.5 day
- Octane manufacturing in the refining process scheme and C7/C8 alkylate cuts.
- Alkylate characteristics and constraints imposed on the production of gasoline.
- Various types of alkylation processes and related simplified process flow diagrams.
- Principle features of processes with solid catalyst.
FEED & PRODUCTS 0.5 day
- Origins of the feed: C3 and C4 olefinic cuts from FCC.
- Imposed proportion of olefins and isobutane: alternate sources of isobutane.
- Impact of the inert components and of the pollutants in the feeds; feed pretreatments.
- Characteristics of the alkylate: RON, MON, RVP, final point, etc.
CHEMICAL REACTIONS & CATALYSTS 0.5 day
- Characteristics of the main reactions, side and undesired reactions; influence of the operating parameters.
- I/O ratio: definition, role, implementation, influence on performance and on energy consumption.
- Catalysts: hydrofluoric acid (HF) or sulfuric acid (H2SO4); respective properties and safety.
- Impact, performances and consumption of the liquid acid used.
OPERATING PARAMETERS OF THE REACTION SECTION 1 day
- Alkylation reactor (depending on the catalyst): technology, mixing method and containment.
- Reactors arrangement and circulation of the fluids inside and outside of the reactors.
- Importance of mixing the two contacting phases, decantation step and separation.
- Cooling of the reactors: heat exchange and heat integration.
- Cryogenic section and pressure control, heat integration.
- Control of the operating parameters: temperature, I/O ratio, acid composition, acid/HC ratio.
- Impact of these parameters on operation and optimization bottleneck removal.
OPERATING PARAMETERS OF SEPARATION SECTION 0.5 day
- Separation of the isobutane recycle, influence of the nC4 and C3 content.
- Separation of the entering nC4.
- Role and benefit of a depropanizer for the mass balance.
OPERATION OF THE NEUTRALIZING SECTION 0.5 day
- Neutralization with caustic solid or liquid (HF).
- Neutralization with acid then caustic: principles, operation and monitoring (H2SO4).
OPERATION & TROUBLESHOOTING 0.5 day
- Feed composition, lack of olefins or of isobutane.
- Optimization: maximizing RON, maximizing production, minimizing acid consumption, etc.
- Acid consumption: acid composition, acid regeneration (HF) or acid run away (H2SO4).
- Upsets: compressor failure, mechanical failure.